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Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs), which develop over time in some HIV-1-infected individuals, define critical epitopes for HIV vaccine design. Using a systematic approach, we have examined neutralization breadth in the sera of about 1800 HIV-1-infected individuals, primarily infected with non-clade B viruses, and have selected donors for monoclonal(More)
Broadly neutralizing antibodies against highly variable viral pathogens are much sought after to treat or protect against global circulating viruses. Here we probed the neutralizing antibody repertoires of four human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected donors with remarkably broad and potent neutralizing responses and rescued 17 new monoclonal antibodies(More)
Broadly neutralizing HIV antibodies are much sought after (a) to guide vaccine design, both as templates and as indicators of the authenticity of vaccine candidates, (b) to assist in structural studies, and (c) to serve as potential therapeutics. However, the number of targets on the viral envelope spike for such antibodies has been limited. Here, we(More)
Broadly neutralizing HIV antibodies (bnAbs) are typically highly somatically mutated, raising doubts as to whether they can be elicited by vaccination. We used 454 sequencing and designed a novel phylogenetic method to model lineage evolution of the bnAbs PGT121-134 and found a positive correlation between the level of somatic hypermutation (SHM) and the(More)
A proline-directed serine/threonine ceramide-activated protein (CAP) kinase mediates transmembrane signaling through the sphingomyelin pathway. CAP kinase reportedly initiates proinflammatory TNF alpha action by phosphorylating and activating Raf-1. The present studies delineate kinase suppressor of Ras (KSR), identified genetically in Caenorhabditis(More)
Most animal studies using passive administration of HIV broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (bnMAbs) have associated protection against high-dose mucosal viral challenge with relatively high serum concentrations of antibody. We recently identified several bnMAbs remarkable for their in vitro potency against HIV. Of these bnMAbs, PGT121 is one of the(More)
Influenza remains a serious public health threat throughout the world. Vaccines and antivirals are available that can provide protection from infection. However, new viral strains emerge continuously because of the plasticity of the influenza genome, which necessitates annual reformulation of vaccine antigens, and resistance to antivirals can appear rapidly(More)
Highly potent broadly neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies hold promise for HIV prophylaxis and treatment. We used the SCID-hu Thy/Liv and BLT humanized mouse models to study the efficacy of these antibodies, primarily PG16, against HIV-1 clades A, B, and C. PG16 targets a conserved epitope in the V1/V2 region of gp120 common to 70-80% of HIV-1 isolates(More)
Influenza infection can give rise to serious illness leading to complications and hospitalization of patients. The efficacy of current standard of care is very limited and provides little relief for patients hospitalized with serious flu. Human monoclonal antibodies (mAb) against influenza are being developed as new treatment options for this patient(More)