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Efficient strategies for precise genome editing in human-induced pluripotent cells (hiPSCs) will enable sophisticated genome engineering for research and clinical purposes. The development of programmable sequence-specific nucleases such as Transcription Activator-Like Effectors Nucleases (TALENs) and Cas9-gRNA allows genetic modifications to be made more(More)
Protein pathways are dynamic and highly coordinated spatially and temporally, capable of performing a diverse range of complex chemistries and enzymatic reactions with precision and at high efficiency. Biotechnology aims to harvest these natural systems to construct more advanced in vitro reactions, capable of new chemistries and operating at high yield.(More)
Let r = (r i) n i=1 be a sequence of real numbers of length n with sum s. Fluctuation theory is the name given to that part of probability theory which deals with the fluctuations of the partial sums s i. Define p(r) to be the number of positive sum s i among s 1 ,. .. , s n and m(r) to be the smallest index i with s i = max 0kn s k. An important problem in(More)
In 1999, the 512-bit number of 155 digits taken from the RSA Challenge list was first factored by the General Number Field Sieve. This work was done on a supercomputer and about 300 PCs or workstations by 17 experts all over the world. The calendar time for the factorization was over 6 months. Based on the open source GGNFS, we improved its algorithms and(More)