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BACKGROUND The Somatic Marker Hypothesis suggests that normal subjects are "foreseeable" and ventromedial prefrontal patients are "myopic" in making decisions, as the behavior shown in the Iowa Gambling Task. The present study questions previous findings because of the existing confounding between long-term outcome (expected value, EV) and gain-loss(More)
Accumulating evidence demonstrates that similar neural circuits are activated during the first-hand experience of pain and the observation of pain in others. However, most functional MRI studies did not detect signal change in the primary somatosensory cortex during pain empathy. To test if the perception of pain in others involves the primary somatosensory(More)
BACKGROUND Psychologically, females are usually thought to be superior in interpersonal sensitivity than males. The human mirror-neuron system is considered to provide the basic mechanism for social cognition. However, whether the human mirror-neuron system exhibits gender differences is not yet clear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We measured the(More)
The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neural mechanisms underlying the orthographic and phonological processing of Chinese characters. Four tasks were devised, including one homophone judgment and three physical judgments of characters, pseudo-characters, and Korean-like nonsense figures. While the left(More)
BACKGROUND The Iowa gambling task is a popular test for examining monetary decision behavior under uncertainty. According to Dunn et al. review article, the difficult-to-explain phenomenon of "prominent deck B" was revealed, namely that normal decision makers prefer bad final-outcome deck B to good final-outcome decks C or D. This phenomenon was(More)
Although pathological muscle pain involves a significantly larger population than any other pain condition, the central mechanisms are less explored than those of cutaneous pain. The aims of the study were to establish the pain matrix for muscle pain in the full head volume and, further, to explore the possibility of a functional segregation to nonpainful(More)
Motor imagery electroencephalography (EEG), which embodies cortical potentials during mental simulation of left or right finger lifting tasks, can be used to provide neural input signals to activate a brain computer interface (BCI). The effectiveness of such an EEG-based BCI system relies on two indispensable components: distinguishable patterns of brain(More)
This paper proposes a low-cost field-programmable gate-array (FPGA)-based brain-computer interface (BCI) multimedia control system, different from the BCI system, which uses bulky and expensive electroencephalography (EEG) measurement equipment, personal computer, and commercial real-time signal-processing software. The proposed system combines a customized(More)
OBJECTIVE This study investigates the functional organization of cortical networks during self-determinant arm movement using the time sequences of the alpha (8-12 Hz) and beta (16-25 Hz) bands. METHODS The time-frequency cross mutual information (TFCMI) method was used to estimate the EEG functional connectivity in the alpha and beta bands for seven(More)
This study presents a new steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP)-based brain computer interface (BCI). SSVEPs, induced by phase-tagged flashes in eight light emitting diodes (LEDs), were used to control four cursor movements (up, right, down, and left) and four button functions (on, off, right-, and left-clicks) on a screen menu. EEG signals were(More)