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BACKGROUND Both end-stage renal disease and chronic kidney disease are increasing worldwide; however, the full effect of chronic kidney disease is unknown because mortality risks for all five stages are unavailable. We assessed prevalence and mortality risks for all stages of chronic kidney disease and quantified its attributable mortality in Taiwan. (More)
Cholinergic transmission through muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) plays a key role in cortical oscillations. Although fast-spiking (FS), parvalbumin-expressing basket cells (BCs) are proposed to be the cellular substrates of gamma oscillations, previous studies reported that FS nonpyramidal cells in neocortical areas are unresponsive to(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the benefits of regular exercise in reducing harms associated with betel quid (BQ) chewing. METHODS The study cohort, 419,378 individuals, participated in a medical screening program between 1994 and 2008, with 38,324 male and 1,495 female chewers, who consumed 5-15 quids of BQ a day. Physical activity of each individual, based on(More)
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