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Two components of the germ-line-specific P granules of the nematode Caenorhabditis elgans have been identified using polyclonal antibodies specific for each. Both components are putative germ-line RNA helicases (GLHs) that contain CCHC zinc fingers of the type found in the RNA-binding nucleocapsid proteins of retroviruses. The predicted GLH-1 protein has(More)
We report that four putative germline RNA helicases, GLHs, are components of the germline-specific P granules in Caenorhabditis elegans. GLH-3 and GLH-4, newly discovered, belong to a multi-gene glh family. Although GLHs are homologous to Drosophila VASA, a polar granule component necessary for oogenesis and embryonic pattern formation, the GLHs are(More)
The GLH proteins belong to a family of four germline RNA helicases in Caenorhabditis elegans. These putative ATP-dependent enzymes localize to the P granules, which are nonmembranous complexes of protein and RNA exclusively found in the cytoplasm of all C. elegans germ cells and germ cell precursors. To determine what proteins the GLHs bind, C. elegans cDNA(More)
A key question in development is how pluripotent progenitors are progressively restricted to acquire specific cell fates. Here we investigate how embryonic blastomeres in C. elegans develop into foregut (pharynx) cells in response to the selector gene PHA-4/FoxA. When pha-4 is removed from pharyngeal precursors, they exhibit two alternative responses.(More)
During organogenesis, pluripotent precursor cells acquire a defined identity such as muscle or nerve. The transition from naïve precursor towards the differentiated state is characterized by sequential waves of gene expression that are determined by regulatory transcription factors. A key question is how transcriptional circuitry dictates the succession of(More)
The high affinity binding interaction of biotin to avidin or streptavidin has been used widely in biochemistry and molecular biology, often in sensitive protein detection or protein capture applications. However, in vitro chemical techniques for protein biotinylation are not always successful, with some common problems being a lack of reaction specificity,(More)
Reversal of immunodeficiency in the lung by gene therapy is limited in part by the difficulty of transfecting lung cells in vivo. Many options exist for successfully transfecting cells in vitro, but they are not easily adapted to the in vivo condition. To overcome this limitation, we transduced macrophages in vitro with the murine IFN-gamma (mIFN-gamma)(More)
Specific saturable receptors for epidermal growth factor (EGF) of high affinity (Ka 1.7 X 10(9) M-1) have been demonstrated on porcine thyroid membranes. Optimal conditions for EGF binding have been determined. TSH and other peptide hormones do not inhibit the binding of 125I-EGF and EGF does not inhibit 125I-TSH binding to thyroid membranes. The results(More)
Targeting lung tissue is nonselective due in part to the lack of specific cell-surface receptors identified on target lung cells. We used in vivo phage display to identify a panel of peptides that can bind selectively to lung epithelial cells with less binding to nonepithelial cells. By direct intratracheal instillation of phage libraries into the lung, we(More)