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Recent advances in the field of stereotactic neurosurgery have made it possible to coregister preoperative computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) images with instrument locations in the operating field. However, accounting for intraoperative movement of brain tissue remains a challenging problem. While intraoperative CT and MR scanners record(More)
Current brain deformation models have predominantly reflected solid constitutive relationships generated from empirical ex vivo data and have largely overlooked interstitial hydrodynamic effects. In the context of a technique to update images intraoperatively for image-guided neuronavigation, we have developed and quantified the deformation characteristics(More)
PURPOSE Microwave antennas of various designs were inserted into arrays of nylon catheters implanted in brain tumors with the goal of raising temperatures throughout the target volume to 43.0 degrees C. METHODS AND MATERIALS All antennas were flexible, and included dipole, choke dipole, modified dipole, and helical designs driven at 915 or 2450 MHz.(More)
Recently, heat generated by iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) stimulated by an alternating magnetic field (AMF) has shown promise in the treatment of cancer. To determine the mechanism of nanoparticle-induced cytotoxicity, the physical association of the cancer cells and the nanoparticles must be determined. We have used transmission electron microscopy(More)
One potential cancer treatment selectively deposits heat to the tumor through activation of magnetic nanoparticles inside the tumor. This can damage or kill the cancer cells without harming the surrounding healthy tissue. The properties assumed to be most important for this heat generation (saturation magnetization, amplitude and frequency of external(More)
Microwave ablation (MWA) is postulated to have several advantages over other thermoablative modalities in the treatment of hepatic tumors. Herein, we use an in vivo porcine model to determine the effect of hepatic blood flow on a novel MWA applicator. Four 100-kg pigs underwent hepatic MWA (2,450 MHz, 100 W, 4 min) using a 5.7-mm diameter applicator(More)
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common disease of elderly men. The current definitive treatment for urinary obstruction caused by this disease is surgery (transurethral resection of the prostate, or TURP). Recent evidence suggests that hyperthermia may be a useful nonsurgical alternative for treatment of symptomatic BPH. A transurethral microwave(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the postnatal development of central corneal curvature and thickness in the domestic cat. Animals studied Six Domestic Short-haired (DSH) kittens starting at 9 weeks of age and 6 adult cats. PROCEDURES Kittens were evaluated biweekly to monthly for a 12-month period, starting at age 9 weeks. Corneal development was monitored by(More)
A noninvasive in situ fluorescence-based method for the quantification of the photosensitizer chloroaluminum disulfonated phthalocyanine was compared to the highly accurate but nonreal time ex vivo spectrofluorometry method. Our in vivo fluorescence technique is designed to allow real-time assessment of photosensitizer in tumor and normal tissues and(More)
Early degeneration of cartilage is accompanied by a loss of proteoglycans and consequent changes in the content of water. Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) cannot reliably detect this change, since the relaxation properties of the cartilage are dominated by its collagen content. The applicability of a positively charged nitroxide as an MRI(More)