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SNAP-25, a membrane-associated protein of the nerve terminal, is specifically cleaved by botulinum neurotoxins serotypes A and E, which cause human and animal botulism by blocking neurotransmitter release at the neuromuscular junction. Here we show that these two metallo-endopeptidase toxins cleave SNAP-25 at two distinct carboxyl-terminal sites. Serotype A(More)
In this study, we investigated whether the tumor promoters, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), phenobarbital (PB), and 1,1-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane (DDT), inhibited gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) in a cell-specific or connexin-specific manner and whether protein kinase C was involved. To do this, we used highly(More)
The mouse mutant coloboma (Cm/+), which exhibits profound spontaneous hyperactivity and bears a deletion mutation on chromosome 2, including the gene encoding synaptosomal protein SNAP-25, has been proposed to model aspects of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Increasing evidence suggests a crucial role for SNAP-25 in the release of both classical(More)
In neurons, depolarization induces Ca2+ influx leading to fusion of synaptic vesicles docked at the active zone for neurotransmitter release. While a number of proteins have now been identified and postulated to participate in the assembly and subsequent disengagement of a vesicle docking complex for fusion, the mechanism that ultimately triggers(More)
Self-emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS) is the isotropic and thermodynamically stable mixture of oil, surfactant, co‐solvent/surfactant, and drug. It emulsifies spontaneously when introduced into an aqueous phase under a mild agitation. The current study was aimed to prepare SNEDDS to augment solubility, release rate, and oral bioavailability of BCS(More)
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