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We examined the effect of substrate stiffness on the beating rate, force of contraction, and cytoskeletal structure of embryonic chicken cardiac myocytes by culturing them on laminin-coated polyacrylamide (PA) substrates. Cells cultured on PA substrates with elasticity comparable to that of the native myocardium (18 kPa) exhibited the highest beating rate(More)
Over the past several decades, there has been an ever-increasing demand for organ transplants. However, there is a severe shortage of donor organs, and as a result of the increasing demand, the gap between supply and demand continues to widen. A potential solution to this problem is to grow or fabricate organs using biomaterial scaffolds and a person's own(More)
Combining biological components, such as cells and tissues, with soft robotics can enable the fabrication of biological machines with the ability to sense, process signals, and produce force. An intuitive demonstration of a biological machine is one that can produce motion in response to controllable external signaling. Whereas cardiac cell-driven(More)
Surfaces of materials that promote cell adhesion, proliferation, and growth are critical for new generation of implantable biomedical devices. These films should be able to coat complex geometrical shapes very conformally, with smooth surfaces to produce hermetic bioinert protective coatings, or to provide surfaces for cell grafting through appropriate(More)
Controlling the assembly of cells in three dimensions is very important for engineering functional tissues, drug screening, probing cell-cell/cell-matrix interactions, and studying the emergent behavior of cellular systems. Although the current methods of cell encapsulation in hydrogels can distribute them in three dimensions, these methods typically lack(More)
A highly aligned pattern of carbon nanofibers (CNF) on polycarbonate urethane (PCU) for tissue engineering applications was created by placing a CNF-ethanol solution in 30 microm width copper grid grooves on top of PCU. In vitro results provided the first evidence that fibroblasts and vascular smooth muscle cells selectively adhered to the PCU regions.(More)
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