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Because freshwater covers such a small fraction of the Earth’s surface area, inland freshwater ecosystems (particularly lakes, rivers, and reservoirs) have rarely been considered as potentially important quantitative components of the carbon cycle at either global or regional scales. By taking published estimates of gas exchange, sediment accumulation, and(More)
One of the major impediments to the integration of lentic ecosystems into global environmental analyses has been fragmentary data on the extent and size distribution of lakes, ponds, and impoundments. We use new data sources, enhanced spatial resolution, and new analytical approaches to provide new estimates of the global abundance of surface-water bodies.(More)
Carbon dioxide (CO2) transfer from inland waters to the atmosphere, known as CO2 evasion, is a component of the global carbon cycle. Global estimates of CO2 evasion have been hampered, however, by the lack of a framework for estimating the inland water surface area and gas transfer velocity and by the absence of a global CO2 database. Here we report(More)
Associations between catchment characteristics (altitude, slope, proportion of peatland, site fertility, total stem volume, and its distribution among the main tree species), climatic drivers (temperature sum, latitude, precipitation and runoff) and atmospheric deposition and concentrations and export of C, N, P and Fe in 21 unmanaged boreal catchments(More)
Thirty-three patients had an arthrodesis of the knee by means of an intramedullary nail introduced through the greater trochanter. Fifteen of the procedures were done for a failed knee arthroplasty; eight had failed because of infection and seven, because of aseptic loosening. Twenty-nine of the thirty-three knees united three to four months after the first(More)
Bladder function was evaluated urodynamically in 17 patients operated on 2 to 3 years previously for the cauda equina syndrome caused by a prolapsed lumbar intervertebral disk. Of the patients 10 (59 per cent) reported the bladder function to be normal, while the other 7 had symptoms of obstruction or incontinence. Urodynamic findings were normal in 4(More)
Increasing dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in lakes, rivers and streams in northern mid latitudes have been widely reported during the last two decades, but relatively few studies have dealt with trends in DOC export. We studied the export of DOC from Finnish rivers to the Baltic Sea between 1975 and 2010, and estimated trends in DOC fluxes(More)
The quantity of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from inland waters into the atmosphere varies, depending on spatial and temporal variations in the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) in waters. Using 22,664 water samples from 851 boreal lakes and 64 boreal streams, taken from different water depths and during different months we found large spatial and temporal(More)
Neurologic symptoms and signs in patients with sciatica were prospectively studied and compared with myelographic and operative findings in 403 cases with lumbar disc herniation as the cause of sciatica with special reference to accuracy of the clinical level diagnosis. Fifty-six percent of the herniations at L4-5. However, pain projection into the first(More)
Nitrogen export from diffuse and point sources and its retention in the major river basins of Finland is quantified and discussed. The estimated total export from river-basins in Finland was 119,000 tonnes N a(-1) for the period 1993 to 1998 based on N export from different land use types defined in a GIS-based assessment model, incorporated with estimates(More)