Pirjo Pietinen

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BACKGROUND Saturated fatty acid (SFA) intake increases plasma LDL-cholesterol concentrations; therefore, intake should be reduced to prevent coronary heart disease (CHD). Lower habitual intakes of SFAs, however, require substitution of other macronutrients to maintain energy balance. OBJECTIVE We investigated associations between energy intake from(More)
Helicobacter pylori infection is an important risk factor for gastric cancer, but <3% of carriers of this organism will ever develop gastric cancer. Since inflammation plays a significant role in gastric carcinogenesis, it has been suggested that polymorphisms in genes involved in inflammatory response may partly explain why only a subgroup of patients(More)
The relation of intakes of specific fatty acids and the risk of coronary heart disease was examined in a cohort of 21,930 smoking men aged 50-69 years who were initially free of diagnosed cardiovascular disease. All men participated in the Finnish Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study and completed a detailed and validated dietary(More)
Objectives: Based on previous epidemiological studies, high fat and meat consumption may increase and fiber, calcium, and vegetable consumption may decrease the risk of colorectal cancer. We sought to address these hypotheses in a male Finnish cohort. Methods: We analyzed data from the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study (ATBC Study)(More)
BACKGROUND Epidemiologic studies have generally reported positive associations between alcohol consumption and risk for colorectal cancer. However, findings related to specific alcoholic beverages or different anatomic sites in the large bowel have been inconsistent. OBJECTIVE To examine the relationship of total alcohol intake and intake from specific(More)
BACKGROUND The cardiovascular risk factor levels of the population have been assessed in Finland since 1972. In the beginning the surveys were done to evaluate the North Karelia Project, which was a community-based preventive programme. A national cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention strategy was developed and implemented during the late 1970s.(More)
There is some evidence that alpha-linolenic acid might be positively related to prostate cancer risk. Associations between serum fatty acid composition as well as fatty acid intakes and prostate cancer risk were examined in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study. The cohort included 29,133 male smokers aged 50-69 years. During 5-8 years(More)
BACKGROUND Even though dietary fiber has been hypothesized to reduce the risk of coronary heart disease, few large epidemiological studies have examined this relation with good methodology. METHODS AND RESULTS The Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with daily supplementation of(More)
Dietary patterns are useful in nutritional epidemiology, providing a comprehensive alternative to the traditional approach based on single nutrients. The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study is a prospective cohort study with a 21-year follow-up. At baseline, detailed quantitative information on subjects' food consumption was obtained using a 48 h(More)
A self-administered food use questionnaire which included 276 food items and mixed dishes and a portion size picture booklet with 122 photographs was developed for a large lung cancer intervention trial among approximately 27,000 Finnish men aged 50-69 years. The reproducibility and validity of this questionnaire were studied from March to October 1984. In(More)