Pirjo Helena Mäkelä

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BACKGROUND Ear infections are a common cause of illness during the first two years of life. New conjugate vaccines may be able to prevent a substantial portion of cases of acute otitis media caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. METHODS We enrolled 1662 infants in a randomized, double-blind efficacy trial of a heptavalent pneumococcal polysaccharide(More)
To elucidate the contribution of dehydrins (DHNs) to freezing stress tolerance in Arabidopsis, transgenic plants overexpressing multiple DHN genes were generated. Chimeric double constructs for expression of RAB18andCOR47(pTP9) or LTI29 and LTI30(pTP10) were made by fusing the coding sequences of the respective DHN genes to the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S(More)
Paired sera from 40 male patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), 30 male patients with chronic coronary heart disease (CCHD), and 41 controls, matched for sex, age, time, and locality were investigated for antibodies to a novel type of Chlamydia sp, TWAR, and to chlamydial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) group antigen. 27 patients with AMI (68%), and 15(More)
BACKGROUND To investigate the etiology of pediatric community-acquired pneumonia, we conducted a prospective, population-based study covering the total population <15 years of age (n = 8851) in 4 municipalities in eastern Finland. MATERIALS AND METHODS The number of patients was 201; chest radiographs were available for all cases and paired sera for(More)
Cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses play a major role in protection as well as pathogenesis of many intracellular bacterial infections. In this study, we evaluated the infection kinetics and assessed histologically the lymphoid reactions and local, in vitro-restimulated CMI responses in lungs of BALB/c mice, during both primary infection and reinfection(More)
BACKGROUND Haemophilus influenzae type b is the leading cause of invasive bacterial disease in young children. The capsular polysaccharide vaccine does not protect children at greatest risk (those under the age of 18 months), but a polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccine has proved to be more immunogenic in this age group. METHODS We enrolled 114,000(More)
The effectiveness of simultaneously administered influenza and pneumococcal vaccines vs. influenza vaccine alone in preventing pneumonia, pneumococcal pneumonia and pneumococcal bacteraemia among the elderly was studied. The vaccines were offered to all persons aged 65 years or older (N=43,500) living in 35 administrative districts in Northern Finland. A(More)
Specific Ab-secreting cells (ASC) appear in the human blood as a response to oral and parenteral vaccination. The actual contribution of these cells to the defense of the body depends on their final effector site. The homing potentials of mucosally and parenterally induced ASC were compared by examining the homing receptor (HR) expression of circulating(More)
The importance of T cells in Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in mice was assessed by comparing wild-type BALB/c mice with nude mice and mice depleted in vivo of either CD4+ or CD8+ T cells. Whereas wild-type mice cleared the primary infection in 3 weeks, nude mice were only able to restrict the infection and could not clear it during the observation period(More)
In a prospective study, 179 adult women (age range, 17-82 years) were followed up for 12 months after an index episode of community-acquired cystitis caused by Escherichia coli. Episodes of symptomatic urinary tract infection (UTI) were recorded, and urinary isolates were compared with the index episode isolate; 147 UTI episodes were detected during the(More)