Piotr W. Nowak

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OBJECTIVE HIV-1 infection is characterized by altered intestinal barrier, gut microbiota dysbiosis, and systemic inflammation. We hypothesized that changes of the gut microbiota predict immune dysfunction and HIV-1 progression, and that antiretroviral therapy (ART) partially restores the microbiota composition. DESIGN An observational study including 28(More)
The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of the long-term paraquat administration on the dopaminergic nigrostriatal system in rats. Paraquat was injected at a dose of 10 mg/kg i.p. for 4-24 weeks. We found that this pesticide reduced the number of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive neurons of the substantia nigra; after the 4-week(More)
The precise effects of HIV-1 on the gut microbiome are unclear. Initial cross-sectional studies provided contradictory associations between microbial richness and HIV serostatus and suggested shifts from Bacteroides to Prevotella predominance following HIV-1 infection, which have not been found in animal models or in studies matched for HIV-1 transmission(More)
BACKGROUND There are strong theoretical arguments for initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) during primary HIV-1 infection (PHI) to preserve HIV-1-specific T-cell responses and to decrease immune activation. METHODS We assessed the degree of immune activation during PHI and after analytical treatment interruption (ATI) in plasma samples from 22 subjects(More)
A deficiency of the dopaminergic transmission in the mesocortical system has been suggested to contribute to cognitive disturbances in Parkinson's disease. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine whether the long-term administration of a commonly used herbicide, paraquat, which has already been found to induce a slowly progressing(More)
L-Dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), the anti-parkinsonian drug affording the greatest symptomatic relief of parkinsonian symptoms, is still misunderstood in terms of its neurotoxic potential and the mechanism by which generated dopamine (DA) is able to exert an effect despite the absence of DA innervation of target sites in basal ganglia. This review(More)
For more than 50 years, heavy metal exposure during pre- or post-natal ontogeny has been known to produce long-lived hyperactivity in rodents. Global brain injury produced by neonatal hypoxia also produced hyperactivity, as did (mainly) hippocampal injury produced by ontogenetic exposure to X-rays, and (mainly) cerebellar injury produced by the ontogenetic(More)
OBJECTIVES To analyse the diversity and divergence of the viral populations in three mother-child pairs in longitudinally obtained samples for up to 7 years. METHODS Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were obtained from three mothers at delivery and three to four samples were obtained from each of their children from 1.5 months up to 78 months of age. The(More)
High mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1) is an abundant component of mammalian cells that can be released into extracellular milieu actively or by cells that undergo necrosis. Exposure of inflammatory and endothelial cells to HMGB1 leads to the release of cytokines, including TNF-alpha and IL-6. To evaluate the impact of exogenous HMGB1 on viral(More)
HIV disease progression is characterized by numerous pathological changes of the cellular immune system. Still, the CD4 cell count and viral load represent the laboratory parameters that are most commonly used in the clinic to determine the disease progression. In this study, we conducted an interdisciplinary investigation to determine which laboratory(More)