Piotr Swistak

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The evolutionary stability of cooperation is a problem of fundamental importance for the biological and social sciences. Different claims have been made about this issue: whereas Axelrod and Hamilton's [Axelrod, R. & Hamilton, W. (1981) Science 211, 1390-1398] widely recognized conclusion is that cooperative rules such as "tit for tat" are evolutionarily(More)
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T he question of how voluntary cooperation can be sustained in human and animal groups has been one of the central theoretical problems of the social and biological sciences for the last several decades. As the problem acquired a more complex mathematical form—having evolved from a simple prisoner’s dilemma game to dynamic evolutionary models—it has also(More)
The new healthcare financing system that was implemented in 1999 finished the existence of the budgetary financing system and made the switch to insurance system. Since the very beginning of the new system expenses of drug reimbursement constituted a substantial part of healthcare services costs in all regions of Poland. Simultaneously, owing to the lack of(More)
The scale of drug expenditures incurred by a society depends on a variety of factors, including economic status of household which purchases drugs. In a basic economic model household income level determines possibility to afford more or less expensive version of drug therapy. This article shows the amount of drug expenditures in relation to the income of(More)
The general purpose of the study, carried out in the group of pensioners was to determine the relation between drug prices, household income and amounts of money spent on drugs in the years 1997-2000. The study was based on representative data gathered from annual household budgets review by Polish Statistical Office and data from pharmaceutical market(More)
Aging of Polish society increases the demand for medical services and drugs. Alleviated consumption of medical services and drugs generates costs that are partially incurred by the state and by citizens themselves. This paper shows the amount of expenditures on healthcare and drugs incurred by the households of retirees and pensioners, including their(More)
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