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Nanobiotechnology is the convergence of engineering and molecular biology that is leading to a new class of multifunctional devices and systems for biological and chemical analysis with better sensitivity and specificity and a higher rate of recognition. Nano-objects with important analytical applications include nanotubes, nanochannels, nanoparticles,(More)
The National Science and Technology Council (NSTC) is the principal means by which the Executive Branch coordinates science and technology policy across the diverse entities that make up the Federal research and development enterprise. A primary objective of the NSTC is establishing clear national goals for Federal science and technology investments. The(More)
Historically, treatment of patients with cancer using chemotherapeutic agents has been associated with debilitating and systemic toxicities, poor bioavailability, and unfavorable pharmacokinetics. Nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems, on the other hand, can specifically target cancer cells while avoiding their healthy neighbors, avoid rapid clearance(More)
Enhanced permeability of the tumor vasculature allows macromolecules to enter the tumor interstitial space, whereas the suppressed lymphatic filtration allows them to stay there. This phenomenon, enhanced permeability and retention (EPR), has been the basis of nanotechnology platforms to deliver drugs to tumors. However, progress in developing effective(More)
A fully integrated biochip device that consists of microfluidic mixers, valves, pumps, channels, chambers, heaters, and DNA microarray sensors was developed to perform DNA analysis of complex biological sample solutions. Sample preparation (including magnetic bead-based cell capture, cell preconcentration and purification, and cell lysis), polymerase chain(More)
The new generation of nanotechnology-based drug formulations is challenging the accepted ways of cancer treatment. Multi-functional nanomaterial constructs have the capability to be delivered directly to the tumor site and eradicate cancer cells selectively, while sparing healthy cells. Tailoring of the nano-construct design can result in enhanced drug(More)
Despite recent progress in the treatment of cancer, the majority of cases are still diagnosed only after tumors have metastasized, leaving the patient with a grim prognosis. However, there may be an opportunity to drastically reduce the burden of cancer, if the disease can be detected early enough. Nanotechnology is in a unique position to transform cancer(More)
Conventional DNA hybridization assay kinetics depends solely on the diffusion of target to surface-bound probes, causing long hybridization times. In this study, we examined the possibilities of accelerating the hybridization process by using microfluidic channels ("biochannels") made of polycarbonate, optionally with an integrated pump. We produced two(More)
Conventional DNA microarray hybridization relies on diffusion of target to surface-bound probes, and thus is a rate-limited process. In this paper, a micromixing technique based on cavitation microstreaming principle that was developed to accelerate hybridization process is explained. Fluidic experiments showed that air bubbles resting on a solid surface(More)