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The ubiquitin-specific processing protease (UBP) family of deubiquitinating enzymes plays an essential role in numerous cellular processes. HAUSP, a representative UBP, specifically deubiquitinates and hence stabilizes the tumor suppressor protein p53. Here, we report the crystal structures of the 40 kDa catalytic core domain of HAUSP in isolation and in(More)
RIG-I recognizes molecular patterns in viral RNA to regulate the induction of type I interferons. The C-terminal domain (CTD) of RIG-I exhibits high affinity for 5' triphosphate (ppp) dsRNA as well as blunt-ended dsRNA. Structures of RIG-I CTD bound to 5'-ppp dsRNA showed that RIG-I recognizes the termini of dsRNA and interacts with the ppp through(More)
Huntington and related neurological diseases result from expansion of a polyglutamine (polyQ) tract. The linear lattice model for the structure and binding properties of polyQ proposes that both expanded and normal polyQ tracts in the preaggregation state are random-coil structures but that an expanded polyQ repeat contains a larger number of epitopes(More)
The STING (stimulator of interferon genes) protein can bind cyclic dinucleotides to activate the production of type I interferons and inflammatory cytokines. The cyclic dinucleotides can be bacterial second messengers c-di-GMP and c-di-AMP, 3'5'-3'5' cyclic GMP-AMP (3'3' cGAMP) produced by Vibrio cholerae and metazoan second messenger 2'5'-3'5' Cyclic(More)
STING (stimulator of interferon genes) is an innate immune sensor of cyclic dinucleotides that regulates the induction of type I interferons. STING's C-terminal domain forms a V-shaped dimer and binds a cyclic diguanylate monophosphate (c-di-GMP) at the dimer interface by both direct and solvent-mediated hydrogen bonds. Guanines of c-di-GMP stack against(More)
T cell activation is subject to tight regulation to avoid inappropriate responses to self antigens. Here we show that genetic deficiency in the ubiquitin ligase Peli1 caused hyperactivation of T cells and rendered T cells refractory to suppression by regulatory T cells and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β). As a result, Peli1-deficient mice spontaneously(More)
Immunotherapy is one of the key strategies for cancer treatment. The cGAS-cGAMP-STING-IRF3 pathway of cytosolic DNA sensing plays a pivotal role in antiviral defense. We report that the STING activator cGAMP possesses significant antitumor activity in mice by triggering the STING-dependent pathway directly. cGAMP enhances innate immune responses by inducing(More)
Prolidases, metalloproteases that catalyze the cleavage of Xaa-Pro dipeptides, are conserved enzymes found in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In humans, prolidase is crucial for the recycling of collagen. To further characterize the essential elements of this enzyme, we utilized the Escherichia coli prolidase, PepQ, which shares striking similarity with(More)
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