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The Sir2 histone deacetylase functions as a chromatin silencer to regulate recombination, genomic stability, and aging in budding yeast. Seven mammalian Sir2 homologs have been identified (SIRT1-SIRT7), and it has been speculated that some may have similar functions to Sir2. Here, we demonstrate that SIRT6 is a nuclear, chromatin-associated protein that(More)
Repair of oxidative DNA damage in mitochondria was thought limited to short-patch base excision repair (SP-BER) replacing a single nucleotide. However, certain oxidative lesions cannot be processed by SP-BER. Here we report that 2-deoxyribonolactone (dL), a major type of oxidized abasic site, inhibits replication by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) polymerase(More)
BACKGROUND Low-level mutations in clinical tumor samples often reside below mutation detection limits, thus leading to false negatives that may impact clinical diagnosis and patient management. COLD-PCR (coamplification at lower denaturation temperature PCR) is a technology that magnifies unknown mutations during PCR, thus enabling downstream mutation(More)
Detection of low-level DNA variations in the presence of wild-type DNA is important in several fields of medicine, including cancer, prenatal diagnosis and infectious diseases. PCR-based methods to enrich mutations during amplification have limited multiplexing capability, are mostly restricted to known mutations and are prone to polymerase or mis-priming(More)
Perturbations in cytosine methylation signals are observed in the majority of human tumors; however, it is as yet unknown how methylation patterns become altered. Epigenetic changes can result in the activation of transforming genes as well as in the silencing of tumor suppressor genes. We report that methyl-CpG-binding proteins (MBPs), specific for(More)
The oxidation of the thymine methyl group can generate 5-formyluracil (FoU). Template FoU residues are known to miscode, generating base substitution mutations. The repair of the FoU lesion is therefore important in minimizing mutations induced by DNA oxidation. We have studied the repair of FoU in synthetic oligonucleotides when paired with A and G. In E.(More)
Thorough screening of cancer-specific biomarkers, such as DNA mutations, can require large amounts of genomic material; however, the amount of genomic material obtained from some specimens (such as biopsies, fine-needle aspirations, circulating-DNA or tumor cells, and histological slides) may limit the analyses that can be performed. Furthermore, mutant(More)
KRAS mutations exhibit significant predictive and prognostic value in cancer. Efficient, sensitive, and accurate molecular approaches are required to evaluate KRAS mutation status, even when mutant alleles are restricted to a small portion of a clinical sample, which otherwise contains wild-type alleles. We describe a highly sensitive method to detect KRAS(More)
For many years, the repair of most damage in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was thought limited to short-patch base excision repair (SP-BER), which replaces a single nucleotide by the sequential action of DNA glycosylases, an apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease, the mitochondrial DNA polymerase gamma, an abasic lyase activity, and mitochondrial DNA ligase.(More)
In a 3D model of breast morphogenesis, CEACAM1 (carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1) plays an essential role in lumen formation in a subline of the nonmalignant human breast cell line (MCF10A). We show that mammary carcinoma cells (MCF7), which do not express CEACAM1 or form lumena when grown in Matrigel, are restored to a normal(More)