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Cyclosporin A (CsA) has been shown to be efficacious in protecting against ischemic injury after short periods (5 to 10 min) of forebrain ischemia. The present experiments were undertaken to study if a long period of forebrain ischemia (30 min), induced at a brain temperature of 37 degrees C, is compatible with survival and if the brain damage incurred can(More)
The newly-developed calpain inhibitor, MDL 28170 penetrates the blood-brain barrier and inhibits brain cysteine protease activity after systemic administration. This experiment was initiated to determine if the calpain inhibitor, MDL 28170 could, by these actions, reduce neuronal damage in an animal model of global cerebral ischemia in the gerbil. The(More)
The objective of the present study was to explore whether a diffusible free radical scavenger can ameliorate the pan-neurotic lesions of the substantia nigra, pars reticulate (SNPR), which are incurred in rats subjected to status epilepticus of more than 30 min duration. Vehicle-injected animals had flurothyl seizures induced for 45 min. The seizures were(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE An increase in serum glucose at the time of acute ischemia has been shown to adversely affect prognosis. The mechanisms for the hyperglycemia-exacerbated damage are not fully understood. The objective of this study was to determine whether hyperglycemia leads to enhanced accumulation of extracellular concentrations of excitatory amino(More)
Hyperglycemia is known to aggravate ischemic brain damage. The present experiments were undertaken to explore whether hyperglycemia caused by streptozotocin-induced diabetes exacerbates brain damage following transient brain ischemia as it does in animals acutely infused with glucose. Experimental diabetes was induced by injection of streptozotocin in rats(More)
The immunosuppressant drug cyclosporin A (CsA) is considered to be inherently protective in conditions of ischemia, e.g. in hepatic and cardiac tissue. However, investigations of effects of CsA on neuronal tissue have been contradictory, probably because the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is virtually impermeable to CsA. In the present study, we exploited the(More)
A recent study from this laboratory has shown that brief transient ischemia (2 min 30 s) in normo- and hyperglycemic rats leads to moderate neuronal necrosis in CA1 cells of the hippocampus, of equal density in the two groups. However, hyperglycemic animals failed to depolarize during the ischemia, nor did they show a decrease in extracellular calcium(More)
Hyperglycemia worsens the neuronal death induced by cerebral ischemia. A previous study demonstrated that diabetic hyperglycemia suppressed the expression of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) in the liver. The objective of this study is to determine whether hyperglycemia exacerbates ischemic brain damage by suppressing the expression of heat shock proteins(More)
The present article is concerned with mechanisms which are responsible for the exaggerated brain damage observed in hyperglycemic animals subjected to transient global or forebrain ischemia. Since hyperglycemia enchances the production of lactate plus H+ during ischemia, it seems likely that aggravation of damage is due to exaggerated intra- and(More)
It has recently been shown that the immunosuppressant cyclosporin A (CsA) dramatically ameliorates the selective neuronal necrosis which results from 10 min of forebrain ischemia in rats. Since CsA is a virtually specific blocker of the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) pore which is assembled under adverse conditions, such as mitochondrial(More)