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Using nonvolatile memories in memory hierarchy has been investigated to reduce its energy consumption because nonvolatile memories consume zero leakage power in memory cells. One of the difficulties is, however, that the endurance of most nonvolatile memory technologies is much shorter than the conventional SRAM and DRAM technology. This has limited its(More)
The emerging Spin Torque Transfer memory (STT-RAM) is a promising candidate for future on-chip caches due to STT-RAM's high density, low leakage, long endurance and high access speed. However, one of the major challenges of STT-RAM is its high write current, which is disadvantageous when used as an on-chip cache since the dynamic power generated is too(More)
Progranulin (PGRN) is a widely expressed protein involved in diverse biological processes. Haploinsufficiency of PGRN in the human causes tau-negative, ubiquitin-positive frontotemporal dementia (FTD). However, the mechanisms are unknown. To explore the role of PGRN in vivo, we generated PGRN-deficient mice. Macrophages from these mice released less(More)
Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), a rate-limiting enzyme for prostanoid synthesis, has been implicated in the neurotoxicity resulting from hypoxia-ischemia, and its inhibition has therapeutic potential for ischemic stroke. However, COX-2 inhibitors increase the risk of cardiovascular complications. We therefore sought to identify the downstream effectors of COX-2(More)
Freely available computer programs were arranged in a pipeline to extract microsatellites from public citrus EST sequences, retrieved from the NCBI. In total, 3,278 bi- to hexa-type SSR-containing sequences were identified from 56,199 citrus ESTs. On an average, one SSR was found per 5.2 kb of EST sequence, with the tri-nucleotide motifs as the most(More)
TNF-induced receptor activator NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL) synthesis by bone marrow stromal cells is a fundamental component of inflammatory osteolysis. We found that this process was abolished by IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) or in stromal cells derived from type I IL-1 receptor-deficient (IL-1RI-deficient) mice. Reflecting sequential signaling of the(More)
Multipotent skin stem cells give rise to epidermis and its appendages, including the hair follicle. The Lef-1/Tcf family of Wnt-regulated transcription factors plays a major role in specification of the hair shaft, but little is known about how the equally important hair channel, the inner root sheath (IRS), develops in concert to shape and guide the hair.(More)
The synthesis and storage of neutral lipids in lipid droplets is a fundamental property of eukaryotic cells, but the spatial organization of this process is poorly understood. Here we examined the intracellular localization of acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 (DGAT2), an enzyme that catalyzes the final step of triacylglycerol (TG) synthesis in(More)
The innate immune system relies on evolutionally conserved Toll-like receptors (TLRs) to recognize diverse microbial molecular structures. Most TLRs depend on a family of adaptor proteins termed MyD88s to transduce their signals. Critical roles of MyD88-1-4 in host defense were demonstrated by defective immune responses in knockout mice. In contrast, the(More)