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Parkinson's disease (PD) is defined by the degeneration of nigral dopaminergic (DA) neurons and can be caused by monogenic mutations of genes such as parkin. The lack of phenotype in parkin knockout mice suggests that human nigral DA neurons have unique vulnerabilities. Here we generate induced pluripotent stem cells from normal subjects and PD patients(More)
Chronic stress could trigger maladaptive changes associated with stress-related mental disorders; however, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. In this study, we found that exposing juvenile male rats to repeated stress significantly impaired the temporal order recognition memory, a cognitive process controlled by the prefrontal cortex (PFC).(More)
Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) regulates dopamine neurotransmission and has been suggested to serve as a homeostatic target of chronic psychostimulant exposure. To study the role of Cdk5 in the modulation of the cellular and behavioral effects of psychoactive drugs of abuse, we developed Cre/loxP conditional knock-out systems that allow temporal and(More)
Hyperspectral images exhibit strong dependencies across spatial and spectral neighbors, which have been proved to be very useful for hyperspectral image classification. State-of-the-art hyperspectral image classification algorithms use the dependencies in a heuristic way or in probabilistic frameworks but impose unreasonable assumptions on observed data. In(More)
The stress-related neuropeptide corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and the serotonin system are both critically involved in the pathophysiology of mental disorders, including anxiety and depression. To understand the potential link between them, we investigated the impact of CRF on 5-HT functions in pyramidal neurons of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), a(More)
Dopaminergic neurotransmission in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays an important role in regulating cognitive processes and emotional status. The dopamine D4 receptor, which is highly enriched in the PFC, is one of the principal targets of antipsychotic drugs. To understand the cellular mechanisms and functional implications of D4 receptors, we examined the(More)
The HIV-1 epidemic in Shanghai is rapidly increasing. To better understand the HIV-1 genetic diversity and the mutations associated with resistance to protease inhibitors (PIs) and reverse transcriptase inhibitors (RTIs), 95 antiretroviral (ARV)-treated and treatment-naive HIV-1-seropositive individuals living in Shanghai were investigated. The HIV-1 pol(More)
Syntaxin is a key presynaptic protein that binds to N- and P/Q-type Ca(2+) channels in biochemical studies and affects gating of these Ca(2+) channels in expression systems and in synaptosomes. The present study was aimed at understanding the molecular basis of syntaxin modulation of N-type channel gating. Mutagenesis of either syntaxin 1A or the(More)
BACKGROUND Co-infection with HIV-1 and HCV is a significant global public health problem and a major consideration for anti-HIV-1 treatment. HCV infection among HIV-1 positive people who are eligible for the newly launched nationwide anti-HIV-1 treatment program in China has not been well characterized. METHODOLOGY A nationwide survey of HIV-1 positive(More)
Increasing evidence has suggested that the interaction between dopaminergic and glutamatergic systems in prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays an important role in normal mental functions and neuropsychiatric disorders. In this study, we examined the regulation of NMDA-type glutamate receptors by the PFC dopamine D4 receptor (one of the principal targets of(More)