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BACKGROUND Intensive lifestyle interventions can reduce the incidence of type 2 diabetes in people with impaired glucose tolerance, but how long these benefits extend beyond the period of active intervention, and whether such interventions reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality, is unclear. We aimed to assess whether intensive(More)
The anther cuticle and microspore exine act as protective barriers for the male gametophyte and pollen grain, but relatively little is known about the mechanisms underlying the biosynthesis of the monomers of which they are composed. We report here the isolation and characterization of a rice (Oryza sativa) male sterile mutant, cyp704B2, which exhibits a(More)
AIMS To estimate the global health expenditure on diabetes among people aged 20-79 years for the years 2010 and 2030. METHODS Country-by-country expenditures for 193 countries, expressed in United States Dollars (USD) and in International Dollars (ID), were estimated based on the country's age-sex specific diabetes prevalence and population estimates, per(More)
Several cost-of-illness (COI) studies related to diabetes mellitus have been performed over the last three decades. This review examines the results of these COI studies, identifies the strengths and limitations of the various methods utilised, and suggests future research that will help determine the economic burden of diabetes more accurately. Diabetes(More)
BACKGROUND It is unknown whether the previously recognized disparities in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors related to annual income and educational level have diminished, persisted, or worsened in recent decades. The objective of this study was to examine 31-year trends in CVD risk factors by annual income and educational levels among US adults. (More)
To characterize the biological features of side population (SP) in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OCC), SP and non-SP were sorted and compared. The SP cells were more clonogenic and in nude mice, only 10,000 SP cells were needed for tumor development compared to 1,000,000 non-SP cells. The SP cells expressed higher levels of ABCG2, ABCB1, CD44, Oct-4, Bmi-1,(More)
BACKGROUND The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) demonstrated that interventions can delay or prevent the development of type 2 diabetes. OBJECTIVE To estimate the lifetime cost-utility of the DPP interventions. DESIGN Markov simulation model to estimate progression of disease, costs, and quality of life. DATA SOURCES The DPP and published reports. (More)
Increased lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2) (Lp-PLA(2)) activity is associated with increased risk of cardiac events, but it is not known whether Lp-PLA(2) is a causative agent. Here we show that selective inhibition of Lp-PLA(2) with darapladib reduced development of advanced coronary atherosclerosis in diabetic and hypercholesterolemic swine.(More)
Vertical handover decision making is one of key problems in heterogeneous network environment. In IEEE 802.21 standard, a Media Independent Handover (MIH) framework is presented to facilitate handover with measurements and triggers from link layers. However, vertical handover decision making can benefit from the information more than link layers. In this(More)
OBJECTIVE To estimate the societal economic burden and the governmental budgetary impact of the following visual disorders among US adults aged 40 years and older: visual impairment, blindness, refractive error, age-related macular degeneration, cataracts, diabetic retinopathy, and primary open-angle glaucoma. DESIGN We estimated 3 components of economic(More)