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Targeting cancer cells, as well as the nonmalignant stromal cells cross-presenting the tumor antigen (Ag), can lead to the complete destruction of well-established solid tumors by adoptively transferred Ag-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). If, however, cancer cells express only low levels of the Ag, then stromal cells are not destroyed, and the tumor(More)
Shimba, a prototype reverse engineering environment, has been built to support the understanding of Java software. Shimba uses Rigi and SCED to analyze, visualize, and explore the static and dynamic aspects, respectively, of the subject system. The static software artifacts and their dependencies are extracted from Java byte code and viewed as directed(More)
Excessive activation of NMDA receptors results in excitotoxic nerve cell loss, which is believed to play a critical role in the pathophysiology of Huntington's disease (HD) and several other catastrophic neurodegenerative diseases. Kynurenic acid (KYNA), a neuroinhibitory tryptophan metabolite, has neuroprotective properties and may serve as an endogenous(More)
To explain why solid cancers grow or are rejected, we examined how the tumor stroma affected the level of antigen expression necessary to induce an immune response. We applied a tamoxifen-regulated Cre-loxP system to induce a model SIYRYYGL antigen recognized by the 2C T cell receptor. Solid tumors expressing the antigen at lower levels grew, whereas solid(More)
Two novel lipase genes RlipE1 and RlipE2 which encoded 361- and 265-amino acid peptides, respectively, were recovered from a metagenomic library of the rumen microbiota of Chinese Holstein cows. A BLAST search revealed a high similarity (90%) between RlipE2 and a carboxylesterase from Thermosinus carboxydivorans Nor1, while there was a low similarity (below(More)
Nuclear export of unspliced and singly spliced viral mRNA is a critical step in the HIV life cycle. The structural basis by which the virus selects its own mRNA among more abundant host cellular RNAs for export has been a mystery for more than 25 years. Here, we describe an unusual topological structure that the virus uses to recognize its own mRNA. The(More)
A whole genome scale proteome array consisting of 908 open reading frames encoded in Chlamydia trachomatis genome and plasmid was used to profile anti-chlamydial Ab responses. A total of 719 chlamydial proteins was recognized by one or more antisera from 99 women urogenitally infected with C. trachomatis. Revealing such a large C. trachomatis ANTIGENome in(More)
The role of Th17 cells in type I diabetes (TID) remains largely unknown. Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) sequence 206-220 (designated GAD2) represents a late-stage epitope, but GAD2-specific T cell receptor transgenic T cells producing interferon gamma (IFNgamma) protect against passive TID. Because IFNgamma is known to inhibit Th17 cells, effective(More)
INTRODUCTION Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a T-cell-mediated systemic autoimmune disease, characterized by synovium inflammation and articular destruction. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) could be effective in the treatment of several autoimmune diseases. However, there has been thus far no report on umbilical cord (UC)-MSCs in the treatment of RA.(More)