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Abscisic acid (ABA) is an important phytohormone that regulates plant stress responses. Proteins from the PYR-PYL-RCAR family were recently identified as ABA receptors. Upon binding to ABA, a PYL protein associates with type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs) such as ABI1 and ABI2, inhibiting their activity; the molecular mechanisms by which PYLs mediate ABA(More)
PYR1/PYL/RCAR proteins (PYLs) are confirmed abscisic acid (ABA) receptors, which inhibit protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C) upon binding to ABA. Arabidopsis thaliana has 14 PYLs, yet their functional distinction remains unclear. Here, we report systematic biochemical characterization of PYLs. A subclass of PYLs, represented by PYL10, inhibited PP2C in the(More)
CONTEXT Endometriosis is an estrogen-dependent disease. Steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1), a transcriptional factor essential for activation of multiple steroidogenic genes for estrogen biosynthesis, is undetectable in normal endometrial stromal cells and aberrantly expressed in endometriotic stromal cells. OBJECTIVE The objective of the study was to unravel(More)
Endometriosis is the most common cause of pelvic pain and affects an estimated 5 million women in the US. The biologically active estrogen estradiol (E2) is the best-defined mitogen for the growth and inflammation processes in the ectopic endometriotic tissue that commonly resides on the pelvic organs. Progesterone and progestins may relieve pain by(More)
Food-borne hemorrhagic Escherichia coli, exemplified by the strains O157:H7 and O104:H4 (refs 1, 2), require elaborate acid-resistance systems (ARs) to survive the extremely acidic environment such as the stomach (pH ≈ 2). AR2 expels intracellular protons through the decarboxylation of L-glutamate (Glu) in the cytoplasm and exchange of the reaction product(More)
BACKGROUND Uterine leiomyoma is the most common benign tumor in reproductive-age women. Each leiomyoma is thought to be a benign monoclonal tumor arising from a single transformed myometrial smooth muscle cell; however, it is not known what leiomyoma cell type is responsible for tumor growth. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that a distinct stem/reservoir(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether microRNAs (miRNAs) are differentially expressed in human leiomyoma versus matched myometrial tissue. DESIGN Microarray with real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) validation. SETTING Academic medical center. PATIENT(S) Premenopausal subjects (n = 15), who were undergoing hysterectomies for leiomyoma-related symptoms.(More)
BACKGROUND Central obesity is thought to be more pathogenic than overall obesity and studies have shown that the association between waist circumference (WC) and mortality was strongest in those with a normal body mass index (BMI). The objective of our study was to determine secular trends in the prevalence of central obesity (WC ≥ 90 cm for men and ≥ 80 cm(More)
Insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-5 is a conserved protein synthesized and secreted by vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). IGFBP-5 binds to extracellular IGFs and modulates IGF actions in regulating VSMC proliferation, migration, and survival. IGFBP-5 also stimulates VSMC migration through an IGF-independent mechanism, but the molecular(More)
BACKGROUND Hypertension has been recognized as a health concern for developing countries. However, there are no current nationwide surveys on the prevalence of hypertension in China (the latest nationwide survey was ten years ago). The goal of this study was to estimate the pooled prevalence of hypertension in Chinese cities. METHODS We systematically(More)