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Expression of the serine protease HtrA1 is decreased or abrogated in a variety of human primary cancers, and higher levels of HtrA1 expression are directly related to better response to chemotherapeutics. However, the precise mechanisms leading to HtrA1 down regulation during malignant transformation are unclear. To investigate HtrA1 gene regulation in(More)
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are of recognized importance for diagnosis and prognosis of cancer patients. With melanoma, most studies do not show any clear relationship between CTC levels and stage of disease. Here, CTCs were enriched (∼400X) from blood of melanoma patients using a simple centrifugation device (OncoQuick), and 4 melanocyte target RNAs(More)
BACKGROUND While the morbidity and mortality from cancer are largely attributable to its metastatic dissemination, the integral features of the cascade are not well understood. The widely accepted hypothesis is that the primary tumor microenvironment induces the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in cancer cells, facilitating their escape into the(More)
To analyze the biological effects of the space environment, we flew nine lines of rice seeds on the Chinese 20(th) recoverable satellite for a duration of 18 days. The same lines of seeds were also irradiated to low doses (2.0 mGy) of Carbon, or Neon or Iron ions (with different LET value of 13.3 keV/microm, 31 keV/microm and 500 keV/microm respectively) at(More)
We previously developed a highly aggressive cell line from heart metastases of 4T1 breast carcinoma (designated 4THM), which produced liver metastases (designated 4TLM). In this study, gene array analysis (GAEA) compared gene expression profiles in 4TLM with profiles in 4T1 and 4THM primary tumors. GAEA demonstrated that 4T1 and 4THM tumors differed in(More)
A major limitation to the effectiveness of ribozymes is definition of accessible sites in targeted RNAs. Although library selection procedures have been developed, they are generally difficult to perform and have not been widely employed. Here we describe a selection technology that utilizes a randomized, active hammerhead ribozyme (Rz) library in an(More)
We have been developing a self-processing triple-ribozyme cassette, which consists of two cis-acting hammerhead ribozymes flanking an internal, trans-acting hammerhead ribozyme (ITRz). Here, the single ITRz was replaced by two contiguous ITRz (dITRz), and a short poly(A) tail was designed onto the 3' end of the liberated dITRz, to produce the "SNIP(AA)"(More)
Aptamers are highly structured oligonucleotides (DNA or RNA) that can bind to targets with affinities comparable to antibodies (1). They are identified through an in vitro selection process called Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment (SELEX) to recognize a wide variety of targets, from small molecules to proteins and other(More)
Orai channels mediate store-operated Ca2+ signals crucial in regulating transcription in many cell types, and implicated in numerous immunological and inflammatory disorders. Despite their central importance, controversy surrounds the basic subunit structure of Orai channels, with several biochemical and biophysical studies suggesting a tetrameric structure(More)
Standard systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) protocols require libraries that contain two primers, one on each side of a central random domain, which allow amplification of target-bound sequences via PCR or RT-PCR. However, these primer sequences cause nonspecific binding by their nature (generally adding about 20 nt on each(More)