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Diabetic nephropathy is characterized by excessive amassing of extracellular matrix (ECM) with thickening of glomerular and tubular basement membranes and increased amount of mesan-gial matrix, which ultimately progress to glomerulosclerosis and tubulo-interstitial fibrosis. In view of this outcome, it would mean that all the kidney cellular elements, i.e.,(More)
The tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNF-R)-associated factor (TRAF) family of intracellular proteins were originally identified as signaling adaptors that bind directly to the cytoplasmic regions of receptors of the TNF-R superfamily. The past decade has witnessed rapid expansion of receptor families identified to employ TRAFs for signaling. These include(More)
Paclitaxel (PTX), a chemotherapeutic drug, affects microtubule dynamics and influences endocytic trafficking. However, the mechanism and the dynamics of altered endocytic trafficking by paclitaxel treatment in single living cells still remain elusive. By labeling quantum dots (QDs) to the epidermal growth factor (EGF), we continuously tracked the(More)
The ability to make electrical measurements inside cells has led to many important advances in electrophysiology. The patch clamp technique, in which a glass micropipette filled with electrolyte is inserted into a cell, offers both high signal-to-noise ratio and temporal resolution. Ideally, the micropipette should be as small as possible to increase the(More)
Lake Taihu is the third largest freshwater lake in China and is suffering from serious cyanobacterial blooms with the associated drinking water contamination by microcystin (MC) for millions of citizens. So far, most studies on MCs have been limited to two small bays, while systematic research on the whole lake is lacking. To explain the variations in MC(More)
The recently released NCEP Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) is used to examine the response to ENSO in the northeast tropical Pacific Ocean (NETP) during 1979–2009. The normally cool Pacific sea surface temperatures (SSTs) associated with wind jets through the gaps in the Central American mountains at Tehuantepec, Papagayo, and Panama are(More)
Astrocytes undergo reactive transformation in response to physical injury (reactive gliosis) that may impede neural repair. Glutamine synthetase (GS) is highly expressed by astrocytes, and serves a neuroprotective function by converting cytotoxic glutamate and ammonia into glutamine. Glutamine synthetase was down-regulated in reactive astrocytes at the site(More)
Methylprednisolone (MP) has been widely used as a standard therapeutic agent for the treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI). Because of its controversial beneficial effects, the combination of MP and other pharmacological agents aimed at enhancing functional recovery is desirable. The phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitor rolipram has been implicated in(More)
Nanoelectronic devices offer substantial potential for interrogating biological systems, although nearly all work has focused on planar device designs. We have overcome this limitation through synthetic integration of a nanoscale field-effect transistor (nanoFET) device at the tip of an acute-angle kinked silicon nanowire, where nanoscale connections are(More)
Multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are found in various tissues and can proliferate extensively in vitro. MSCs have been used in preclinical animal studies and clinical trials in many fields. Adipose derived stem cells (ASCs) have several advantages compared to other MSCs for use in cell-based treatments because they are easy to isolate with relative(More)