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Digital watermarks have previously been proposed for the purposes of copy protection and copy deterrence for multimedia content. In copy deterrence, a content owner (seller) inserts a unique watermark into a copy of the content before it is sold to a buyer. If the buyer sells unauthorized copies of the watermarked content, then these copies can be traced to(More)
We describe a watermarking scheme for ownership verification and authentication. Depending on the desire of the user, the watermark can be either visible or invisible. The scheme can detect any modification made to the image and indicate the specific locations that have been modified. If the correct key is specified in the watermark extraction procedure,(More)
Severe methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) deficiency with less than 2% of normal enzyme activity is characterized by neurological abnormalities, atherosclerotic changes, and thromboembolism. We have discovered a "new" variant of MTHFR deficiency which is characterized by the absence of neurological abnormalities, an enzyme activity of about 50% of(More)
Two different approaches in the inverse halftoning of error-diffused images are considered. The first approach uses linear filtering and statistical smoothing that reconstructs a gray-scale image from a given error-diffused image. The second approach can be viewed as a projection operation, where one assumes the error diffusion kernel is known, and finds a(More)
A "newly detected" variant of methylenetetrahydrofolate (MTHF) reductase (E.C. deficiency associated with an 8-15-fold increase in plasma total homocysteine was discovered in two unrelated patients who had subnormal serum folate. However, the homocysteinemia was corrected by oral folic acid supplement. When MTHF reductase activities in lymphocyte(More)