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Several CD4 mAbs have entered the clinic for the treatment of autoimmune diseases or transplant rejection. Most of these mAbs caused CD4 cell depletion, and some were murine mAbs which were further hampered by human anti-mouse Ab responses. To obviate these concerns, a primatized CD4 mAb, clenoliximab, was generated by fusing the V domains of a cynomolgus(More)
BACKGROUND Allergic respiratory diseases are characterized by large numbers of eosinophils and their reactive products in airways and blood; these are believed to be involved in progressive airway damage and remodeling. IL-5 is the principal cytokine for eosinophil maturation, differentiation, and survival. Mepolizumab (SB-240563), a humanized monoclonal(More)
Sphingosine 1 phosphate (S1P), an aminophospholipid, acts extracellularly as a ligand via the specific G protein-coupled receptors of the endothelial differentiation gene (EDG) 1, 3, 5, 6 and 8 receptors family and intracellularly as a second messenger in various cellular types. The aim of this work was to investigate biological activity of S1P in(More)
It has recently been shown that UDP-glucose is a potent agonist of the orphan G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) KIAA0001. Here we report cloning and analysis of the rat and mouse orthologs of this receptor. In accordance with GPCR nomenclature, we have renamed the cDNA clone, KIAA0001, and its orthologs GPR105 to reflect their functionality as(More)
A lambda phage expression methodology was adapted to dissect protein/ligand interactions efficiently through the creation and rapid screening of large numbers of mutants. Here we describe the method and its specific application to the interaction between the external envelope glycoprotein of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1), gp120, and the human(More)
Filamentous phage was the first display platform employed to isolate antibodies in vitro and is still the most broadly used. The success of phage display is due to its robustness, ease of use, and comprehensive technology development, as well as a broad range of selection methods developed during the last two decades. We report here the first combinatorial(More)
The Fc domain of IgG has been the target of multiple mutational studies aimed at altering the pH-dependent IgG/FcRn interaction to modulate IgG pharmacokinetics. These studies have yielded antibody variants with disparate pharmacokinetic characteristics, ranging from extended in vivo half-life to those exhibiting extremely rapid clearance. To better(More)
The human CCL2 chemokine is implicated in many chronic inflammatory conditions. In the mouse, there are two CCL2 homologues, CCL2 (MCP-1/JE) and CCL12 (MCP-5). Both are potent monocyte chemoattractants and bind to and activate the same receptor, CCR2. The overlapping activities of these chemokines complicate the design of mouse model studies that are(More)
Novel analogs of human monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) were designed, synthesized and characterized to be used as tools to generate monoclonal antibodies as potential human therapeutics. MCP-1 and three analogs were synthesized by step-wise Fmoc solid phase synthesis. After oxidation to form the two-disulfide bonds, affinity chromatography using(More)
Airway remodeling, caused by inflammation and fibrosis, is a major component of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and currently has no effective treatment. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) has been widely implicated in the pathogenesis of airway remodeling in COPD. TGF-β is expressed in a latent form that requires activation. The integrin(More)