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Although the evolutionary success of polyploidy in higher plants has been widely recognized, there is virtually no information on how polyploid genomes have evolved after their formation. In this report, we used synthetic polyploids of Brassica as a model system to study genome evolution in the early generations after polyploidization. The initial(More)
The lac operon of Escherichia coli is the paradigm for gene regulation. Its key component is the lac repressor, a product of the lacI gene. The three-dimensional structures of the intact lac repressor, the lac repressor bound to the gratuitous inducer isopropyl-beta-D-1-thiogalactoside (IPTG) and the lac repressor complexed with a 21-base pair symmetric(More)
Seven dog cytochromes p450 (p450s) were heterologously expressed in baculovirus-Sf21 insect cells. Of all enzymes examined, CYP1A1 exhibited high 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity (low Km enzyme, 1 microM). CYP2B11 and CYP3A12 effectively catalyzed the N1-demethylation and C3-hydroxylation of diazepam (and its derivatives), whereas CYP3A12 and CYP2D15(More)
Nitric oxide (NO) inhibits vascular contraction by activating cGMP-dependent protein kinase I-alpha (PKGI-alpha), which causes dephosphorylation of myosin light chain (MLC) and vascular smooth muscle relaxation. Here we show that PKGI-alpha attenuates signaling by the thrombin receptor protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) through direct activation of(More)
Foxtail millet (Setaria italica) is an important grain crop that is grown in arid regions. Here we sequenced 916 diverse foxtail millet varieties, identified 2.58 million SNPs and used 0.8 million common SNPs to construct a haplotype map of the foxtail millet genome. We classified the foxtail millet varieties into two divergent groups that are strongly(More)
We followed 145 men with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) hepatitis for 10 years to determine whether exposure to aflatoxin, or concomitant exposure to hepatitis C virus (HCV), or family history of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) increased the risk of developing HCC. We collected 8 monthly urine samples before beginning follow-up and pooled them to detect(More)
The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) is a key determinant of IgG homeostasis. It binds to the Fc domain of IgG in a strictly pH-dependent manner and protects IgG from lysosomal degradation. The impact of FcRn salvage pathway on IgG monoclonal antibody (mAb) pharmacokinetics (PK) has been well established. In this report, a set of mAbs with wild-type human Fc(More)
It has been suggested by many studies that Ca2+ signaling plays an important role in regulating key steps in cell division. In order to study the down stream components of calcium signaling, we have fused the gene of calmodulin (CaM) with that of green fluorescent protein (GFP) and expressed it in HeLa cells. The GFP-CaM protein was found to have similar(More)