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The ErbB2-targeting antibody, trastuzumab (Herceptin), has remarkable therapeutic efficacy in certain patients with ErbB2-overexpressing tumors. The overall trastuzumab response rate, however, is limited and what determines trastuzumab response is poorly understood. Here we report that PTEN activation contributes to trastuzumab's antitumor activity.(More)
Rats have important advantages over mice as an experimental system for physiological and pharmacological investigations. The lack of rat embryonic stem (ES) cells has restricted the availability of transgenic technologies to create genetic models in this species. Here, we show that rat ES cells can be efficiently derived, propagated, and genetically(More)
Animal models are powerful tools to analyze the mechanism of the induction of human breast cancer. Here we report a detailed analysis of mammary tumor progression in one mouse model of breast cancer caused by expression of the polyoma middle T oncoprotein (PyMT) in the mammary epithelium, and its comparison to human breast tumors. In PyMT mice, four(More)
This correspondence studies the statistical distribution of the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) for the minimum mean-square error (MMSE) receiver in multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) wireless communications. The channel model is assumed to be (transmit) correlated Rayleigh flat-fading with unequal powers. The SINR can be decomposed into(More)
Autophagy is a homeostatic process involved in the bulk degradation of cytoplasmic components, including damaged organelles and proteins. In both genetic and dietary models of obesity, we observed a severe downregulation of autophagy, particularly in Atg7 expression levels in liver. Suppression of Atg7 both in vitro and in vivo resulted in defective insulin(More)
Trastuzumab is a successful rationally designed ERBB2-targeted therapy. However, about half of individuals with ERBB2-overexpressing breast cancer do not respond to trastuzumab-based therapies, owing to various resistance mechanisms. Clinically applicable regimens for overcoming trastuzumab resistance of different mechanisms are not yet available. We show(More)
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the main site of protein and lipid synthesis, membrane biogenesis, xenobiotic detoxification and cellular calcium storage, and perturbation of ER homeostasis leads to stress and the activation of the unfolded protein response. Chronic activation of ER stress has been shown to have an important role in the development of(More)
The telecare medicine information system (TMIS) allows patients and doctors to access medical services or medical information at remote sites. Therefore, it could bring us very big convenient. To safeguard patients’ privacy, authentication schemes for the TMIS attracted wide attention. Recently, Tan proposed an efficient biometrics-based authentication(More)
As chronic inflammation is a hallmark of obesity, pathways that integrate nutrient- and pathogen sensing pathways are of great interest in understanding the mechanisms of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and other chronic metabolic pathologies. Here, we provide evidence that double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) can respond to nutrient(More)
As the trust issue in wireless sensor networks is emerging as one important factor in security schemes, it is necessary to analyze how to resist attacks with a trust scheme. In this paper we categorize various types of attacks and countermeasures related to trust schemes in WSNs. Furthermore, we provide the development of trust mechanisms, give a short(More)