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One of the key infrastructure components in all telecommunication networks, ranging from the telephone network, to VC-oriented data networks, to the Internet, is its signaling system. Two broad approaches towards signaling can be identified: so-called hard-state and soft-state approaches. Despite the fundamental importance of signaling, our understanding of(More)
Insect chemosensory proteins (CSPs) have been proposed to capture and transport hydrophobic chemicals from air to olfactory receptors in the lymph of antennal chemosensilla. They may represent a new class of soluble carrier protein involved in insect chemoreception. However, their specific functional roles in insect chemoreception have not been fully(More)
The distribution of finished products from depots to customers is a practical and challenging problem in logistics management. Better routing and scheduling decisions can result in higher level of customer satisfaction because more customers can be served in a shorter time. The distribution problem is generally formulated as the vehicle routing problem(More)
—We compare four different approaches towards modeling frame-level errors in GSM channels. One of these, the Markov-based Trace Analysis model (MTA), was developed for the purpose of model-ing a GSM channel. The next two, ¢-th-order Markov models and hidden Markov models (HMMs) have been widely used to model loss in wired networks. All three of these have(More)
It has been demonstrated that through the formation of embryoid bodies (EBs) germ cells can be derived from embryonic stem (ES) cells. Here, we describe a transgene expression approach to derive germ cells directly from ES cells in vitro without EB formation. Through the ectopic expression of Deleted in Azoospermia-Like (Dazl), a germ cell-specific(More)