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The present study was designed to determine whether there are gender differences in hormonal response patterns to HPA axis activation. To this end, two methods of activating the HPA axis were employed: a standardized psychological stress test and a pharmacological challenge. Healthy subjects (mean age 23.4 years, SD 7.0 years) completed a naloxone challenge(More)
A polymorphism in the mu-opioid receptor (MOR) (A118G) has been shown to increase beta-endorphin binding affinity, theoretically placing greater inhibitory tone on hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons. We hypothesized that the minor allele (G) would predict cortisol responses to both pharmacological (naloxone) and psychological(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess whether age at onset variation reflects underlying genetic heterogeneity in bipolar disorder, the authors examined the clinical and familial characteristics of age at onset in bipolar disorder subjects from families with multiple affected members. METHOD A total of 211 families with 1,856 subjects were ascertained through bipolar I(More)
Previous evidence suggests that language function is modulated by genetic variants on chromosome 7q31-36. However, it is unclear whether this region harbors loci that contribute to speech delay in autism. We previously reported that the WNT2 gene located on 7q31 was associated with the risk of autism. Additionally, two other genes on 7q31-36, FOXP2 and the(More)
We previously reported a linkage region on chromosome 10q for age-at-onset (AAO) of Alzheimer (AD) and Parkinson (PD) diseases. Glutathione S-transferase, omega-1 (GSTO1) and the adjacent gene GSTO2, located in this linkage region, were then reported to associate with AAO of AD and PD. To examine whether GSTO1 and GSTO2 (hereafter referred to as GSTO1h) are(More)
Since Emil Kraepelin proposed in 1919 that dementia praecox (schizophrenia) be differentiated from manic depression (bipolar disorder), the concept of nosological dichotomy has greatly influenced the diagnosis, treatment, and research of pathogenesis of these 2 disorders. However, this concept has recently been challenged by increasing evidence showing(More)
Runs of homozygosity (ROH) may play a role in complex diseases. In the current study, we aimed to test if ROHs are linked to the risk of autism and related language impairment. We analyzed 546,080 SNPs in 315 Han Chinese affected with autism and 1,115 controls. ROH was defined as an extended homozygous haplotype spanning at least 500 kb. Relative extended(More)
The mechanisms underlying aggression in adolescents with bipolar disorder have been poorly understood. The present study has investigated the associations among TNF gene expressions, functional brain activations under the frustrative non-reward task, and aggression in adolescents with bipolar disorder. Baseline gene expressions and aggressive tendencies(More)
BACKGROUND Pulse wave velocity (PWV), a noninvasive index of central arterial stiffness, is a potent predictor of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Heritability and linkage studies have pointed toward a genetic component affecting PWV. We conducted a genome-wide association study to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with PWV.(More)
Autism is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder with high heritability. Despite different approaches worldwide to identify susceptibility loci or genes for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), no consistent result has been reported. CNS patterning genes have been recognized as candidate genes for autism based on neuroimage and neuropathology evidence. This(More)