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A polymorphism in the mu-opioid receptor (MOR) (A118G) has been shown to increase beta-endorphin binding affinity, theoretically placing greater inhibitory tone on hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons. We hypothesized that the minor allele (G) would predict cortisol responses to both pharmacological (naloxone) and psychological(More)
An increasing number of publications are replicating a previously reported disease-marker association but with the risk allele reversed from the previous report. Do such "flip-flop" associations confirm or refute the previous association findings? We hypothesized that these associations may indeed be confirmations but that multilocus effects and variation(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess whether age at onset variation reflects underlying genetic heterogeneity in bipolar disorder, the authors examined the clinical and familial characteristics of age at onset in bipolar disorder subjects from families with multiple affected members. METHOD A total of 211 families with 1,856 subjects were ascertained through bipolar I(More)
BACKGROUND Previous linkage studies have shown that chromosome 12 harbors susceptibility genes for late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD). However, association studies of several candidate genes on this chromosome region have produced ambiguous results. A recent study reported the association between the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPD) gene on(More)
The present study was designed to determine whether there are gender differences in hormonal response patterns to HPA axis activation. To this end, two methods of activating the HPA axis were employed: a standardized psychological stress test and a pharmacological challenge. Healthy subjects (mean age 23.4 years, SD 7.0 years) completed a naloxone challenge(More)
We previously reported a linkage region on chromosome 10q for age-at-onset (AAO) of Alzheimer (AD) and Parkinson (PD) diseases. Glutathione S-transferase, omega-1 (GSTO1) and the adjacent gene GSTO2, located in this linkage region, were then reported to associate with AAO of AD and PD. To examine whether GSTO1 and GSTO2 (hereafter referred to as GSTO1h) are(More)
Previous evidence suggests that language function is modulated by genetic variants on chromosome 7q31-36. However, it is unclear whether this region harbors loci that contribute to speech delay in autism. We previously reported that the WNT2 gene located on 7q31 was associated with the risk of autism. Additionally, two other genes on 7q31-36, FOXP2 and the(More)
The co-occurrence of schizophrenia (SCZ) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) has been well documented. This review article focuses on the hypothesis that the co-occurrence of SCZ and T2D may be, at least in part, driven by shared genetic factors. Previous genetic studies of T2D and SCZ evidence have disclosed a number of overlapped risk loci. However, the(More)
The goal of the current study is to clarify the relationship between social information processing (e.g., visual attention to cues of hostility, hostility attribution bias, and facial expression emotion labeling) and aggressive tendencies. Thirty adults were recruited in the eye-tracking study that measured various components in social information(More)
Since Emil Kraepelin proposed in 1919 that dementia praecox (schizophrenia) be differentiated from manic depression (bipolar disorder), the concept of nosological dichotomy has greatly influenced the diagnosis, treatment, and research of pathogenesis of these 2 disorders. However, this concept has recently been challenged by increasing evidence showing(More)