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Nitrification, the oxidation of ammonia via nitrite to nitrate, has always been considered to be a two-step process catalysed by chemolithoautotrophic microorganisms oxidizing either ammonia or nitrite. No known nitrifier carries out both steps, although complete nitrification should be energetically advantageous. This functional separation has puzzled(More)
Despite the increasing interest in TRPA1 channel as a pain target, its role in cold sensation and body temperature regulation is not clear; the efficacy and particularly side effects resulting from channel blockade remain poorly understood. Here we use a potent, selective, and bioavailable antagonist to address these issues. A-967079 potently blocks human(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Acute activation of P2X7 receptors rapidly opens a non-selective cation channel. Sustained P2X7 receptor activation leads to the formation of cytolytic pores, mediated by downstream recruitment of hemichannels to the cell surface. Species- and single-nucleotide polymorphism-mediated differences in P2X7 receptor activation have been(More)
A new pmoA gene-based PCR primer set was designed for detection of nitrite-dependent anaerobic oxidation of methane (n-damo) bacteria from four different ecosystems, namely rice paddy soil, freshwater reservoir, reed bed, and sludge from wastewater treatment plant. This primer set showed high specificity and efficiency in recovering n-damo bacteria from(More)
BACKGROUND Cytokines involved in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) direct a predominantly cell-mediated T- helper-1 (Th1) immune response. The nonspecific anti-inflammatory treatment being used in the management of patients with IBD has not changed much since the 1970s and new therapeutic agents are keenly sought. Several compounds isolated from Allium(More)
Release of Abeta peptides from beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP) requires sequential cleavage by two endopeptidases, beta- and gamma-secretases. beta-Secretase was recently identified as a novel membrane-bound aspartyl protease, named BACE1, Asp2, or memapsin 2. Employing confocal microscopy and subcellular fractionation, we have found that BACE1 is(More)
To understand the role cAMP phosphodiesterases (PDEs) play in the regulation of insulin secretion, we analyzed cyclic nucleotide PDEs of a pancreatic beta-cell line and used family and isozyme-specific PDE inhibitors to identify the PDEs that counteract glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. We demonstrate the presence of soluble PDE1C, PDE4A and 4D, a(More)
It is well established that the vanilloid receptor, VR1, is an important peripheral mediator of nociception. VR1 receptors are also located in several brain regions, yet it is uncertain whether these supraspinal VR1 receptors have any influence on the nociceptive system. To investigate a possible nociceptive role for supraspinal VR1 receptors, capsaicin (10(More)
OBJECTIVE Prolonged elevation of glucose can adversely affect beta-cell function. In vitro studies have linked glucose-induced beta-cell dysfunction to oxidative stress; however, whether oxidative stress plays a role in vivo is unclear. Therefore, our objective was to investigate the role of oxidative stress in an in vivo model of glucose-induced beta-cell(More)
Proteolytic processing of amyloid precursor protein generates beta-amyloid (Abeta) peptides that are deposited in senile plaques in brains of aged individuals and patients with Alzheimer's disease. Presenilins (PS1 and PS2) facilitate the final step in Abeta production, the intramembranous gamma-secretase cleavage of amyloid precursor protein. Biochemical(More)