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Determination of signaling pathways that regulate beta-cell replication is critical for beta-cell therapy. Here, we show that blocking pancreatic macrophage infiltration after pancreatic duct ligation (PDL) completely inhibits beta-cell proliferation. The TGFβ superfamily signaling inhibitor SMAD7 was significantly up-regulated in beta cells after PDL. Beta(More)
Accumulating evidence reveals a significant correlation between angiopoietin 2 (Ang2) expression and tumor invasion and metastasis in various human cancers, but the major focus of recent studies has been on the angiogenic effects of Ang2. We recently reported that Ang2-stimulated glioma cell invasion results from the up-regulation and activation of matrix(More)
Acquisition of a metastatic phenotype by breast cancer cells includes alternations of multigenic programs that permit tumor cells to metastasize to distant organs. Here, we report that angiopoietin-2 (Ang2), a known growth factor, is capable of promoting breast cancer cell invasion leading to metastasis. Analysis of 185 primary human breast cancer specimens(More)
The software development process imposes major impacts on the quality of software at every development stage; therefore, a common goal of each software development phase concerns how to improve software quality. Software quality prediction thus aims to evaluate software quality level periodically and to indicate software quality problems early. In this(More)
Background—Patients with treated diabetes in the randomized-trial segment of the Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation (BARI) who were randomized to initial revascularization with PTCA had significantly worse 5-year survival than patients assigned to CABG. This treatment difference was not seen among diabetic patients eligible for BARI who(More)
Whether facultative β cell progenitors exist in the adult pancreas is a major unsolved question. To date, lineage-tracing studies have provided conflicting results. To track β cell neogenesis in vivo, we generated transgenic mice that transiently coexpress mTomato and GFP in a time-sensitive, nonconditional Cre-mediated manner, so that insulin-producing(More)
Methotrexate (MTX) is an anticancer agent that is widely used in a variety of human cancers including primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL). Important pharmacological properties that directly bear on the use of MTX in PCNSL, such as mechanisms that govern its uptake into brain tumors, are poorly defined, but are amenable to investigation in mouse(More)
Autologous venous grafts, used to circumvent occluded coronary arteries during coronary artery bypass, often develop thrombosis and neointimal hyperplasia. During neointimal hyperplasia, vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), exposed to substantially higher pressure and hemodynamic forces, proliferate and extracellular matrix accumulate causing narrowing of(More)
One major problem in cluster analysis is the determination of the number of clusters. In this paper, we describe both theoretical and experimental results in determining the cluster number for a small set of samples using the Bayesian-Kullback Ying-Yang (BYY) model selection criterion. Under the second-order approximation, we derive a new equation for(More)