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Most mammalian genes produce multiple distinct messenger RNAs through alternative splicing, but the extent of splicing conservation is not clear. To assess tissue-specific transcriptome variation across mammals, we sequenced complementary DNA from nine tissues from four mammals and one bird in biological triplicate, at unprecedented depth. We find that(More)
The eukaryotic 20S proteasome is responsible for the degradation of many cellular proteins, but how it is assembled and how its distinct active sites are formed are not understood. Like other proteasome subunits, the yeast Doa3 protein is synthesized in precursor form. We show that the N-terminal propeptide is required for Doa3 incorporation into the(More)
The hierarchical packaging of eukaryotic chromatin plays a central role in transcriptional regulation and other DNA-related biological processes. Here, we report the 11-angstrom-resolution cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structures of 30-nanometer chromatin fibers reconstituted in the presence of linker histone H1 and with different nucleosome(More)
The spread of HIV between immune cells is greatly enhanced by cell-cell adhesions called virological synapses, although the underlying mechanisms have been unclear. With use of an infectious, fluorescent clone of HIV, we tracked the movement of Gag in live CD4 T cells and captured the direct translocation of HIV across the virological synapse. Quantitative,(More)
The use of product lines is recognized as beneficial in promoting and structuring both component and architecture reuse throughout an organization. While the business practices of using product lines are well-understood and representations for specifying and capturing the underlying architecture of a product line are coming of age, support environments for(More)
BACKGROUND Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterised by airflow limitation, and has many components including mucus hypersecretion, oxidative stress, and airway inflammation. We aimed to assess whether carbocisteine, a mucolytic agent with anti-inflammatory and antioxidation activities, could reduce the yearly exacerbation rate in(More)
A new distributed amplifier (DA) topology is proposed, which is a combination of the conventional DA and the cascaded single-stage DA. This DA topology can provide wide bandwidth with considerations of the gain, noise figure (NF), and output power simultaneously, and requires reasonable dc power consumption. In this paper, two termination methods of this(More)
We designed and fabricated a four-channel reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer based on silicon photonic wire waveguide controlled through thermo-optic effect. The effective footprint of the device is about 1000 x 500 microm(2). The minimum insertion loss is about 10.7 dB and the tuning bandwidth about 17 nm. The average tuning power efficiency is(More)