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Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) is implicated in the regulation of several physiological processes, including the control of glycogen and protein synthesis by insulin, modulation of the transcription factors AP-1 and CREB, the specification of cell fate in Drosophila and dorsoventral patterning in Xenopus embryos. GSK3 is inhibited by serine(More)
PD 098059 has been shown previously to inhibit the dephosphorylated form of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase-1 (MAPKK1) and a mutant MAPKK1(S217E,S221E), which has low levels of constitutive activity (Dudley, D. T., Pang, L., Decker, S. J., Bridges, A. J., and Saltiel, A. R. (1995) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 92, 7686-7689). Here we report that PD(More)
Insulin activated endogenous protein kinase B alpha (also known as RAC/Akt kinase) activity 12-fold in L6 myotubes, while after transfection into 293 cells PKBalpha was activated 20- and 50-fold in response to insulin and IGF-1 respectively. In both cells, the activation of PKBalpha was accompanied by its phosphorylation at Thr308 and Ser473 and, like(More)
A class of pyridinyl imidazoles inhibit the MAP kinase homologue, termed here reactivating kinase (RK) [Lee et al. (1994) Nature 372, 739-746]. We now show that one of these compounds (SB 203580) inhibits RK in vitro (IC50 = 0.6 microM), suppresses the activation of MAPKAP kinase-2 and prevents the phosphorylation of heat shock protein (HSP) 27 in response(More)
Identified originally as a regulator of glycogen metabolism, glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) is now a well-established component of the Wnt signalling pathway, which is essential for setting up the entire body pattern during embryonic development. It may also play important roles in protein synthesis, cell proliferation, cell differentiation, microtubule(More)
BACKGROUND Protein kinase B (PKB), also known as c-Akt, is activated rapidly when mammalian cells are stimulated with insulin and growth factors, and much of the current interest in this enzyme stems from the observation that it lies 'downstream' of phosphoinositide 3-kinase on intracellular signalling pathways. We recently showed that insulin or(More)
The cyclic heptapeptide, microcystin-LR, inhibits protein phosphatases 1 (PP1) and 2A (PP2A) with Ki values below 0.1 nM. Protein phosphatase 2B is inhibited 1000-fold less potently, while six other phosphatases and eight protein kinases tested are unaffected. These results are strikingly similar to those obtained with the tumour promoter okadaic acid. We(More)
MAPK-activated protein kinase-2 (MAPKAP kinase-2) is activated in vitro by the p42 and p44 isoforms of MAPK (p42/p44MAPK). In several cell lines, however, MAPKAP kinase-2 is activated by sodium arsenite, heat shock, or osmotic stress and not by agonists that activate p42/p44MAPK. We have identified a MAPK-like enzyme that acts as a MAPKAP kinase-2(More)
The neurotransmitter dopamine has been demonstrated by biochemical, histochemical and immunocytochemical techniques to be unevenly distributed in the mammalian central nervous system. DARPP-32 (dopamine- and cyclic-AMP-regulated phosphoprotein of molecular weight 32,000) is a neuronal phosphoprotein that displays a regional distribution in the mammalian(More)