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Protocols represent the allowed interactions among communicating agents. Protocols are essential in applications such as electronic commerce where it is necessary to constrain the behaviors of autonomous agents. Traditional approaches, which model protocols in terms of action sequences, limit the flexibility of the agents in executing the protocols. By(More)
Commitments among agents are widely recognized as an important basis for organizing interactions in multiagent systems. We develop an approach for formally representing and reasoning about commitments in the event calculus. We apply and evaluate this approach in the context of protocols, which represent the interactions allowed among communicating agents.(More)
Protocols are structured interactions among communicating agents. Protocols are essential in applications such as electronic commerce where it is necessary to constrain the behaviors of autonomous agents. Traditional representations of protocols specify legal sequences of actions but define neither the content of the actions nor of the intervening states.(More)
Commitments are a powerful representation for modeling multiagent interactions. Previous approaches have considered the semantics of commitments and how to check compliance with them. However, these approaches do not capture some of the subtleties that arise in real-life applications, e.g., e-commerce, where contracts and institutions have implicit temporal(More)
The increasing number of service providers on the Web makes it challenging to select a provider for a specific service demand. Each service consumer has different expectations for a given service in different contexts, so the selection process should be consumer-oriented and context-dependent. Current approaches for service selection typically have(More)
Interaction protocols enable agents to communicate with each other effectively. Whereas several approaches exist to specify interaction protocols, none of them has design tools that can help protocol designers catch semantic protocol errors at design time. As research in networking protocols has shown, flawed specifications of protocols can have disastrous(More)
We consider automated negotiation as a process carried out by software agents to reach a consensus. To automate negotiation, we expect agents to understand their user’s preferences, generate offers that will satisfy their user, and decide whether counter offers are satisfactory. For this purpose, a crucial aspect is the treatment of preferences. An agent(More)
Agents must decide with whom to interact, which is nontrivial when no central directories are available. A classical decentralized approach is referral systems, where agents adaptively give referrals to one another. We study the emergent properties of referral systems, especially those dealing with their quality, efficiency, and structure. Our key findings(More)
A new, formal, role-based, framework for modeling and analyzing both real world and artificial organizations is introduced. It exploits static and dynamic properties of the organizational model and includes the (frequently ignored) environment. The transition is described from a generic framework of an organization to its deployed model and to the actual(More)