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The structure and T cell stimulatory effects of the recently discovered cytokine IL-23 are similar to, but distinct from, those of IL-12. Although the antitumor activities of IL-12 are well characterized, the effect of IL-23 on tumor growth is not known. In this study, murine CT26 colon adenocarcinoma and B16F1 melanoma cells were engineered using(More)
In vivo electroporation (EP) of the murine interleukin-12 (IL-12) gene in an expression plasmid (pIL-12) was evaluated for antitumor activity. EP transfer of pIL-12 into mouse quadriceps muscles elicited significant levels of serum IL-12 and interferon-gamma. Intramuscular EP of pIL-12 resulted in complete regression or substantial inhibition of 38C13(More)
Using a hepatitis B virus (HBV) transgenic mouse model, we previously showed that a single dose of double-stranded adeno-associated virus (dsAAV) vector serotype 8 carrying a small hairpin RNA (shRNA) effectively reduces HBV replication and gene expression, but the effect gradually decreases with time. In this report, we compared the anti-HBV RNA(More)
Identification of the cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes of tumor antigens is important for effective immunotherapy. We report that a combination of epitope prediction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based epitope-HLA complex formation, and DNA immunization methods can improve the efficiency and accuracy of CTL epitope studies. In this study,(More)
In order to determine the mechanism of generation of immunological memory, we used the splenic focus assay to analyze primary and in vitro generated secondary phosphorylcholine (PC)-specific B cell precursors in CBA/CaHN-xid/J mice (CBA/N) expressing an X-linked immune defect (xid). A quantitative analysis of the kinetics of the appearance of these(More)
To better understand the regulation of Ig repertoire expression and the generation of memory B cells, we have used the splenic focus assay to analyze primary and in vitro generated secondary phosphorylcholine (PC)-specific BALB/c B cell precursors. A quantitative analysis of the kinetics of appearance of these precursors over the time of the culture period(More)
In this paper, a concentration evaluation of reading behaviors with electrical signal detection on the head is presented. The electrode signal is extracted by brain-computer-interface (BCI) to monitor the user's degree of concentration, where the user is reminded by sound to concentrate, or teaching staffs are reminded to help users improve reading habits,(More)
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