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When many protein sequences are available for estimating the time of divergence between two species, it is customary to estimate the time for each protein separately and then use the average for all proteins as the final estimate. However, it can be shown that this estimate generally has an upward bias, and that an unbiased estimate is obtained by using(More)
Successful healing of skin wounds requires sensory innervation and the release of vasoactive neuropeptides that dilate blood vessels and deliver serum proteins to the wound, and that cause pain that protects from further injury. Activin has been proposed as a target-derived regulator of sensory neuropeptides during development, but its role in the mature(More)
We previously reported the discovery of P7C3, an aminopropyl carbazole having proneurogenic and neuroprotective properties in newborn neural precursor cells of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. We have further found that chemicals having efficacy in this in vivo screening assay also protect dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra following exposure to the(More)
Signals from target tissues play critical roles in the functional differentiation of neuronal cells, and in their subsequent adaptations to peripheral changes in the adult. Sensory neurons in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) provide an excellent model system for the study of signals that regulate the development of neuronal diversity. DRG have been well(More)
Pain hypersensitivity is a cardinal sign of tissue damage, but how molecules from peripheral tissues affect sensory neuron physiology is incompletely understood. Previous studies have shown that activin A increases after peripheral injury and is sufficient to induce acute nociceptive behavior and increase pain peptides in sensory ganglia. This study was(More)
Compulsive behavior is a debilitating clinical feature of many forms of neuropsychiatric disease, including Tourette syndrome, obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders, eating disorders, and autism. Although several studies link striatal dysfunction to compulsivity, the pathophysiology remains poorly understood. Here, we show that both constitutive and(More)
We previously reported the discovery of P7C3, an aminopropyl carbazole having proneurogenic and neuroprotective properties in newborn neural precursor cells of the dentate gyrus. Here, we provide evidence that P7C3 also protects mature neurons in brain regions outside of the hippocampus. P7C3 blocks 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine(More)
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