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Several Dinophysis species produce diarrhoetic toxins (okadaic acid and dinophysistoxins) and pectenotoxins, and cause gastointestinal illness, Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP), even at low cell densities (<103 cells·L⁻¹). They are the main threat, in terms of days of harvesting bans, to aquaculture in Northern Japan, Chile, and Europe. Toxicity and(More)
Yessotoxin (YTX) is a marine polyether toxin that was first isolated in 1986 from the scallop Patinopecten yessoensis. Subsequently, it was reported that YTX is produced by the dinoflagellates Protoceratium reticulatum, Lingulodinium polyedrum and Gonyaulax spinifera. YTXs have been associated with diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) because they are often(More)
Benthic Prorocentrum species can produce toxins that adversely affect animals and human health. They are known to co-occur with other bloom-forming, potentially toxic, benthic dinoflagellates of the genera Ostreopsis, Coolia, and Gambierdiscus. In this study, we report on the presence of P. elegans M.Faust and P. levis M.A.Faust, Kibler, Vandersea, P.A.(More)
Alexandrium ostenfeldii is present in a wide variety of environments in coastal areas worldwide and is the only dinoflagellate known species that produces paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins and two types of cyclic imines, spirolides (SPXs) and gymnodimines (GYMs). The increasing frequency of A. ostenfeldii blooms in the Baltic Sea has been(More)
OBJECTIVE to make recommendations on the approach to nutritional problems (malnutrition, cachexia, micronutrient deficiency, obesity, lipodystrophy) affecting HIV-infected patients. METHODS these recommendations have been agreed upon by a group of expertes in the nutrition and care of HIV-infected patients, on behalf of the different groups involved in(More)
Dinoflagellates are microscopic aquatic eukaryotes with huge genomes and an unusual cell regulation. For example, most genes are present in numerous copies and all copies seem to be obligatorily transcribed. The consequence of the gene copy number (CPN) for final protein synthesis is, however, not clear. One such gene is sxtA, the starting gene of paralytic(More)
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