Learn More
Epidemiological studies show that cadmium (Cd) exposure causes pulmonary damage, such as emphysema, pneumonitis, and lung cancer. However, the mechanisms leading to pulmonary toxicity are not yet fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to further investigate cadmium chloride (CdCl(2)) induced toxicity using Calu-3 cells as an in vitro model of human(More)
Fetal bovine serum (FBS) is a common supplement to in vitro culture media. A workshop was organized to discuss whether or not fetuses might suffer when blood is withdrawn, and to discuss serum replacement methods. When bovine fetuses are exposed after slaughter of the dam, they can suffer only if they inflate their lungs with air and increase their blood(More)
This paper addresses the validity of the segmental anchoring hypothesis for tonal landmarks (henceforth, SAH) as described in recent work by (among others) [1999. Constant 'segmental' anchoring of f0 movements under changes in speech rate. The alignment of LH* prenuclear peaks with segmental landmarks in controlled speech materials in Peninsular Spanish is(More)
This paper discusses the effects of tonal clash (or strict adjacency between two accents) on the phonetic realization of H* accents in Catalan. The analysis of the data shows that the adjacency of two rising accents triggers a drastic temporal reorganization of the F o gestures involved, resulting in anticipation of the first gesture and delay of the(More)
The 7th amendment to the EU Cosmetics Directive prohibits to put animal-tested cosmetics on the market in Europe after 2013. In that context, the European Commission invited stakeholder bodies (industry, non-governmental organisations, EU Member States, and the Commission's Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety) to identify scientific experts in five(More)
The European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM) proposes to make the validation process more flexible, while maintaining its high standards. The various aspects of validation are broken down into independent modules, and the information necessary to complete each module is defined. The data required to assess test validity in an(More)
In this study , the scaling of peak fundamental frequency (f 0) values in Mexican Spanish downstepping contours is examined as a function of the following linguistic factors : (1) phrasal length ; (2) temporal distance between pitch accents ; (3) phrasal position ; and (4) f 0 value of preceding peak. The motivation for this study stems from contradictory(More)
ACuteTox is a project within the 6th European Framework Programme which had as one of its goals to develop, optimise and prevalidate a non-animal testing strategy for predicting human acute oral toxicity. In its last 6 months, a challenging exercise was conducted to assess the predictive capacity of the developed testing strategies and final identification(More)