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To investigate the role of glutamate transport in non-synaptic glia, we characterized the expression of three major glutamate transporters (EAAC1, GLAST and GLT-1) in rat optic nerve in situ using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in combination with Western blot and immunochemistry with specific antibodies. GLAST was localized to(More)
Voltage-dependent potassium KCNQ2 (Kv7.2) channels play a prominent role in the control of neuronal excitability. These channels must associate with calmodulin to function correctly and, indeed, a mutation (R353G) that impairs this association provokes the onset of a form of human neonatal epilepsy known as benign familial neonatal convulsions (BFNC). We(More)
Kv7.2 and Kv7.3 are the main components of the neuronal voltage-dependent M-current, which is a subthreshold potassium conductance that exerts an important control on neuronal excitability. Despite their predominantly intracellular distribution, these channels must reach the plasma membrane in order to control neuronal activity. Thus, we analyzed the amino(More)
The anti-immobility effect of the selective melatonin receptor antagonist, luzindole, was investigated in the behavioral despair test using three different strains (C3H/HeN, C57BL/6J and albino ND/4) of mice. The time of immobility of the C3H/HeN during the 240 s swimming period measured at noon (12:00 to 14:00 h) was 47.8 +/- 3.0 s (n = 63) and at midnight(More)
The potential regulation of protein trafficking by calmodulin (CaM) is a novel concept that remains to be substantiated. We proposed that KCNQ2 K+ channel trafficking is regulated by CaM binding to the C-terminal A and B helices. Here we show that the L339R mutation in helix A, which is linked to human benign neonatal convulsions, perturbs CaM binding to(More)
The functional status of platelet alpha 2-adrenoceptors in patients with major depression has been assessed by simultaneously measuring both a biochemical mechanism of transduction of receptor activation (inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity) and a physiologic response of the receptor (induction of aggregation). The inhibitory effects induced by(More)
KCNQ2 (Kv7.2) and KCNQ3 (Kv7.3) are the principal subunits underlying the potassium M-current, which exerts a strong control on neuronal excitability. KCNQ3 subunits coassemble with KCNQ2 to form functional heteromeric channels that are specifically transported to the axonal initial segment and nodes of Ranvier. In contrast, there is no evidence for(More)
This study utilized quantitative receptor autoradiography to examine the effects of repeated administration of antidepressants to rats on the binding of the beta adrenoceptor antagonist, 125I-iodopindolol (125I-IPIN) to either beta-1 or beta-2 adrenoceptors in various regions of brain. Antidepressants were selected to represent various chemical and(More)
The exceptional versatility of calmodulin (CaM) three-dimensional arrangement is reflected in the growing number of structural models of CaM/protein complexes currently available in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) database, revealing a great diversity of conformations, domain organization, and structural responses to Ca(2+). Understanding CaM binding is(More)
M-channels are voltage-gated potassium channels composed of Kv7.2-7.5 subunits that serve as important regulators of neuronal excitability. Calmodulin binding is required for Kv7 channel function and mutations in Kv7.2 that disrupt calmodulin binding cause Benign Familial Neonatal Convulsions (BFNC), a dominantly inherited human epilepsy. On the basis that(More)