Learn More
A highly pathogenic avian influenza virus, H5N1, caused disease outbreaks in poultry in China and seven other east Asian countries between late 2003 and early 2004; the same virus was fatal to humans in Thailand and Vietnam. Here we demonstrate a series of genetic reassortment events traceable to the precursor of the H5N1 viruses that caused the initial(More)
Wild waterfowl are the natural reservoir of all influenza A viruses, and these viruses are usually nonpathogenic in these birds. However, since late 2002, H5N1 outbreaks in Asia have resulted in mortality among waterfowl in recreational parks, domestic flocks, and wild migratory birds. The evolutionary stasis between influenza virus and its natural host may(More)
Wild waterfowl, including ducks, are natural hosts of influenza A viruses. These viruses rarely caused disease in ducks until 2002, when some H5N1 strains became highly pathogenic. Here we show that these H5N1 viruses are reverting to nonpathogenicity in ducks. Ducks experimentally infected with viruses isolated between 2003 and 2004 shed virus for an(More)
To determine whether avian H5N1 influenza viruses associated with human infections in Vietnam had transmitted to pigs, we investigated serologic evidence of exposure to H5N1 influenza virus in Vietnamese pigs in 2004. Of the 3,175 pig sera tested, 8 (0.25%) were positive for avian H5N1 influenza viruses isolated in 2004 by virus neutralization assay and(More)
The complete genomes of three human H5N1 influenza isolates were characterized, together with the haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes from two additional human isolates and one chicken isolate. These six influenza isolates were obtained from four different provinces of Thailand during the avian influenza outbreak in Asia from late 2003 to May(More)
BACKGROUND During 2004, a highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) virus caused poultry disease in eight Asian countries and infected at least 44 persons, killing 32; most of these persons had had close contact with poultry. No evidence of efficient person-to-person transmission has yet been reported. We investigated possible person-to-person transmission(More)
Tissue tropism and pathogenesis of influenza A virus subtype H5N1 disease in humans is not well defined. In mammalian experimental models, H5N1 influenza is a disseminated disease. However, limited previous data from human autopsies have not shown evidence of virus dissemination beyond the lung. We investigated a patient with fatal H5N1 influenza. Viral RNA(More)
Dengue viruses (DV), composed of four distinct serotypes (DV1 to DV4), cause 50 to 100 million infections annually. Durable homotypic immunity follows infection but may predispose to severe subsequent heterotypic infections, a risk conferred in part by the immune response itself. Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE), a process best described in vitro, is(More)
A phylogenetic analysis of VP1 and VP4 nucleotide sequences of 52 recent CVA16 strains demonstrated two distinct CVA16 genogroups, A and B, with the prototype strain being the only member of genogroup A. CVA16 G-10, the prototype strain, showed a nucleotide difference of 27.7–30.2% and 19.9–25.2% in VP1 and VP4, respectively, in relation to other CVA16(More)
The present study was conducted as a population based cohort in a rural community of Amphoe Takhli, Nakhon Sawan province for the determination of the prevalence of acute viral lower respiratory infection (ALRI) in pediatric cases under 5 years of age from November 1998 to February 2001. There were 472 ALRI episodes during the study period; and there were 5(More)