Pil-Jae Kong

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In the present study, the underlying protective mechanism of melatonin on kainic acid (KA)-induced excitotoxicity was examined in the hippocampus of mice. KA, administered intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.), induced marked neuronal cell death with concurrent microglial activation and subsequent induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the(More)
Inflammation is a significant component of chronic neurodegenerative diseases. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is expressed in activated microglial cells and appears to be an important source of prostaglandins during inflammatory conditions. To investigate the effect of curcumin on COX-2 gene expression in microglial cells, we treated lipopolysaccharide(More)
Microglia are the major inflammatory cells in the central nervous system and become activated in response to brain injuries such as ischemia, trauma, and neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Moreover, activated microglia are known to release a variety of proinflammatory cytokines and oxidants such as nitric oxide (NO). Minocycline(More)
Melatonin has been reported to protect neurons from a variety of neurotoxicity. However, the underlying mechanism by which melatonin exerts its neuroprotective property has not yet been clearly understood. We previously demonstrated that melatonin protected kainic acid-induced neuronal cell death in mouse hippocampus, accompanied by sustained activation of(More)
Flavonoids have been demonstrated to exhibit a wide range of biological activities including anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective actions. Although a significant amount of flavonoids has been identified to be present as glycosides in medicinal plants, determinations of the biological activities of flavonoids were mainly carried out with aglycones of(More)
Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) has been implicated as a potential immune stimulant in activating microglia, which can cause chronic neurodegeneration. In this study, we examined the involvement of different types of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in the induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) by dsRNA in microglial cells. Nitric oxide(More)
Given that mutant huntingtin may cause dysregulation of gene expression in striatal neurons leading to the neuronal death, we examined the expression level of Bcl-2 interacting mediator of cell death (Bim) in immortalized wild type STHdh(Q7) and knock-in mutant STHdh(Q111) striatal cell lines to understand the underlying mechanism by which mutant huntingtin(More)
Microglial cells are thought to be major inflammatory cells in the central nervous system; however, sufficient information about the effects of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) in microglial cells is lacking. The present study compared the innate immune responses of the murine microglial cell line BV2 to dsRNA and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). It showed that the(More)
Wogonin (5,7-dihydroxy-8-methoxyflavone) has been reported to exhibit a variety of biological properties including anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective functions. In this study, biological activities of diverse synthetic wogonin derivatives have been evaluated in two experimental cell culture models. Inhibitory activities of wogonin derivatives on(More)
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