There is a long tradition in which " phatic " forms of interaction are seen as (and characterized by) relatively low levels of " information " and " meaning ". Yet, observations on social media interaction patterns show an amazing density of such phatic interactions, in which signs are shared and circulated without an a priori determination of the meaning.… (More)
This chapter outlines digital ethnography as an approach to studying digital communication. Ethnography, as a holistic approach to societies and cultures, can make a substantial contribution to the study of present-day digital communication environments and our digital culture(s), and there is indeed already a burgeoning literature on ethnographically… (More)
project of the European Space Agency ESA with instruments provided by two scientific Consortia funded by ESA member states (in particular the lead countries: France and Italy) with contributions from NASA (USA), and telescope reflectors provided in a collaboration between ESA and a scientific Consortium led and funded by Denmark.