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Purine nucleotides are well established as extracellular signaling molecules. P2X receptors are ATP-gated cation channels that mediate fast excitatory transmission in diverse regions of the brain and spinal cord. Several P2X receptor subtypes, including P2X(7), have the unusual property of changing their ion selectivity during prolonged exposure to ATP,(More)
Glia and microglia in particular elaborate pro-inflammatory molecules that play key roles in central nervous system (CNS) disorders from neuropathic pain and epilepsy to neurodegenerative diseases. Microglia respond also to pro-inflammatory signals released from other non-neuronal cells, mainly those of immune origin such as mast cells. The latter are found(More)
Cerebellar granule neurons maintained in medium containing serum and 25 mM K+ reliably undergo an apoptotic death when switched to serum-free medium with 5 mM K+. New mRNA and protein synthesis and formation of reactive oxygen intermediates are required steps in K+ deprivation-induced apoptosis of these neurons. Here we show that neurotrophins, members of(More)
Positive allosteric modulators of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptors, including benzodiazepines and congeners, can be classified into three categories: 1) full allosteric modulators (i.e., triazolam and alprazolam) that act with high potency and efficacy at many GABAA receptors; 2) selective allosteric modulators (i.e., diazepam) that act with high(More)
Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is a crucial mediator in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases at the periphery and in the central nervous system (CNS). Produced as an unprocessed and inactive pro-form which accumulates intracellularly, release of the processed cytokine is strongly promoted by ATP acting at the purinergic P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) in cells primed(More)
The effect of repeated morphine administration on conditioned place preference (CPP) using a novel treatment schedule, i.e., drug treatment was always contingent with the conditioned environmental stimuli, was investigated. We also examined whether changes in the mu- and kappa-opioid receptor binding occurred in the brain of morphine-treated animals.(More)
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors are one of the most actively investigated classes of compounds in the search for an effective treatment of Alzheimer's disease. This work describes the synthesis, AChE inhibitory activity, and structure-activity relationships of some compounds related to a recently discovered series of AChE inhibitors: the(More)
Toll-like receptor (TLR) activation on microglia and astrocytes are key elements in neuroinflammation which accompanies a number of neurological disorders. While TLR activation on glia is well-established to up-regulate pro-inflammatory mediator expression, much less is known about how ligand engagement of one TLR may affect expression of other TLRs on(More)
The behavioural and anticonvulsant effects of several 1-aryl-3,5-dihydro-4H-2,3-benzodiazepin-4-ones (2,3-BZs) and of 11b-aryl-7,11-dihydro-3-phenyl[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[5,4-a][2,3]benz odiazepin-6-ones (2,3-OBZs) were studied after intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration in DBA/2 mice, a strain genetically susceptible to sound-induced seizures. The seizures were(More)
Previous studies have shown that the serotonin-reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluoxetine affects neural progenitors derived from postnatal cerebellum or adult hippocampus and stimulates their proliferation. In the human cerebellum, the proliferation of cerebellar granule cells (CGC) continues until the 11th postnatal month and could be influenced in infants by(More)