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Glia and microglia in particular elaborate pro-inflammatory molecules that play key roles in central nervous system (CNS) disorders from neuropathic pain and epilepsy to neurodegenerative diseases. Microglia respond also to pro-inflammatory signals released from other non-neuronal cells, mainly those of immune origin such as mast cells. The latter are found(More)
BACKGROUND The aetiology of Parkinson's disease (PD), an age-related disorder characterized by a progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra (SN) pars compacta, remains unclear. Current treatments, such as administration of L-DOPA, are only symptomatic and do not stop or delay the progressive loss of neurons. In fact, it has(More)
Cerebellar granule neurons maintained in medium containing serum and 25 mM K+ reliably undergo an apoptotic death when switched to serum-free medium with 5 mM K+. New mRNA and protein synthesis and formation of reactive oxygen intermediates are required steps in K+ deprivation-induced apoptosis of these neurons. Here we show that neurotrophins, members of(More)
The effect of repeated morphine administration on conditioned place preference (CPP) using a novel treatment schedule, i.e., drug treatment was always contingent with the conditioned environmental stimuli, was investigated. We also examined whether changes in the mu- and kappa-opioid receptor binding occurred in the brain of morphine-treated animals.(More)
Positive allosteric modulators of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptors, including benzodiazepines and congeners, can be classified into three categories: 1) full allosteric modulators (i.e., triazolam and alprazolam) that act with high potency and efficacy at many GABAA receptors; 2) selective allosteric modulators (i.e., diazepam) that act with high(More)
The behavioural and anticonvulsant effects of several 1-aryl-3,5-dihydro-4H-2,3-benzodiazepin-4-ones (2,3-BZs) and of 11b-aryl-7,11-dihydro-3-phenyl[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[5,4-a][2,3]benz odiazepin-6-ones (2,3-OBZs) were studied after intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration in DBA/2 mice, a strain genetically susceptible to sound-induced seizures. The seizures were(More)
Previous studies have shown that the serotonin-reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluoxetine affects neural progenitors derived from postnatal cerebellum or adult hippocampus and stimulates their proliferation. In the human cerebellum, the proliferation of cerebellar granule cells (CGC) continues until the 11th postnatal month and could be influenced in infants by(More)
Oligodendrogenesis and oligodendrocyte precursor maturation are essential processes during the course of central nervous system development, and lead to the myelination of axons. Cells of the oligodendrocyte lineage are generated in the germinal zone from migratory bipolar oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs), and acquire cell surface markers as they(More)
One of the more important recent advances in neuroscience research is the understanding that there is extensive communication between the immune system and the central nervous system (CNS). Proinflammatory cytokines play a key role in this communication. The emerging realization is that glia and microglia, in particular, (which are the brain's resident(More)
Increasing evidence suggests that specific physiological measures may serve as biomarkers for successful treatment to alleviate symptoms of pathological anxiety. Studies of autonomic function investigating parameters such as heart rate (HR), HR variability and blood pressure (BP) indicated that HR variability is consistently reduced in anxious patients,(More)