Pietro Gambardella

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The isotropic magnetic moment of a free atom is shown to develop giant magnetic anisotropy energy due to symmetry reduction at an atomically ordered surface. Single cobalt atoms deposited onto platinum (111) are found to have a magnetic anisotropy energy of 9 millielectron volts per atom arising from the combination of unquenched orbital moments (1.1 Bohr(More)
Modern computing technology is based on writing, storing and retrieving information encoded as magnetic bits. Although the giant magnetoresistance effect has improved the electrical read out of memory elements, magnetic writing remains the object of major research efforts. Despite several reports of methods to reverse the polarity of nanosized magnets by(More)
Two-dimensional systems, such as ultrathin epitaxial films and superlattices, display magnetic properties distinct from bulk materials. A challenging aim of current research in magnetism is to explore structures of still lower dimensionality. As the dimensionality of a physical system is reduced, magnetic ordering tends to decrease as fluctuations become(More)
Magnetic atoms at surfaces are a rich model system for solid-state magnetic bits exhibiting either classical or quantum behaviour. Individual atoms, however, are difficult to arrange in regular patterns. Moreover, their magnetic properties are dominated by interaction with the substrate, which, as in the case of Kondo systems, often leads to a decrease or(More)
Designing systems with large magnetic anisotropy is critical to realize nanoscopic magnets. Thus far, the magnetic anisotropy energy per atom in single-molecule magnets and ferromagnetic films remains typically one to two orders of magnitude below the theoretical limit imposed by the atomic spin-orbit interaction. We realized the maximum magnetic anisotropy(More)
We report on the magnetic properties of single Co atoms on graphene on Pt(111). By means of scanning tunneling microscopy spin-excitation spectroscopy, we infer a magnetic anisotropy of K=-8.1  meV with out-of-plane hard axis and a magnetic moment of 2.2μ(B). Co adsorbs on the sixfold graphene hollow site. Upon hydrogen adsorption, three differently(More)
We investigated the magnetic properties of individual Ho atoms adsorbed on the (111) surface of Pt, which have been recently claimed to display single ion magnetic behavior. By combining x-ray absorption spectroscopy and magnetic dichroism measurements with ligand field multiplet calculations, we reveal a ground state which is incompatible with long spin(More)
A permanent magnet retains a substantial fraction of its saturation magnetization in the absence of an external magnetic field. Realizing magnetic remanence in a single atom allows for storing and processing information in the smallest unit of matter. We show that individual holmium (Ho) atoms adsorbed on ultrathin MgO(100) layers on Ag(100) exhibit(More)
We present a method to measure continuous-wave ferromagnetic resonance ͑FMR͒ spectra based on the core-level absorption of circularly polarized x rays. The technique is demonstrated by using a monochromatic x-ray beam incident on an yttrium–iron–garnet sample excited by a microwave field at 2.47 GHz. FMR spectra are obtained by monitoring the x-ray(More)