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Plasma concentration–time data obtained after an oral single dose of 500-mg valproic acid (VPA) in a delayed release formulation was used to model enterohepatic cycling of the drug. Fourteen healthy subjects (seven women and seven men) were enrolled, food intake was standardized, blood samples were withdrawn up to 48 h post dosing and VPA plasma(More)
Ketoprofen, a potent nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, is clinically administered as a racemic mixture. One of the possible metabolism routes of ketoprofen is the inversion of the R- to S-enantiomer in the gastrointestinal tract. Ketoprofen, as a weak acid drug, might undergo recirculation through pancreatic/intestinal juices. The aim of the work was to(More)
Highly variable drugs have been defined as drugs with a residual variability of more than 30% in terms of the ANOVA coefficient of variation. Different approaches have been proposed during the last years to deal with this problem but the topic remains controversial. Itraconazole, a highly variable drug, has low bioavailability with a high CYP3A4(More)
Nevirapine (NVP) extensive data obtained after oral single dose administration of 200 mg in a crossover study involving 16 healthy subjects was used to develop a descriptive population pharmacokinetic model including drug recirculation, since secondary peaks were observed in plasma concentration-time profiles for all subjects. Through implementation of(More)
The elimination rate of drug from a capacity-limited one-compartment model can be expressed by equation (1): [formula: see text] Traditionally equation (1) was linearized according to equation (2): [formula: see text] Here, an alternative linear relationships between concentration and the area under the curve of C/(Km + c]) is proposed: [formula: see text](More)
Although the Pgp efflux transport protein is overexpressed in resected tissue of patients with epilepsy, the presence of polymorphisms in MDR1/ABCB1 and MRP2/ABCC2 in patients with antiepileptic-drugs resistant epilepsy (ADR) is controversial. The aim of this study was to perform an exploratory study to identify nucleotide changes and search new and(More)
Valproic acid, a branched short-chain fatty acid, has numerous action mechanisms which turn it into a broad spectrum anticonvulsant drug and make its use possible in some other pathologies such as bipolar disorder. It is extensively metabolized in liver, representing β -oxidation in the mitochondria one of its main metabolic route (40%). Carnitine is(More)
Objective: The aim of the study was to analyze retrospectively carbamazepine (CBZ) and valproic acid (VPA) salivary data collected from epileptic children during a 3-year period. Methods: Saliva samples stimulated by citric acid were assayed by FPIA method. One hundred and three patients (aged 1-14 years) were in CBZ or VPA monotherapy or in CBZ-VPA(More)
BACKGROUND Several oral ivermectin (IVM) formulations for use in sheep are available in the pharmaceutical veterinary market in different countries. All of them are indicated at the same dose rate to treat the gastrointestinal nematodes. However, there is a lack of information on the relative systemic exposure (plasma bioavailability) and clinical efficacy(More)
Blood carnitine and/or acetylcarnitine deficiencies are postulated in the literature as possible causes of higher ammonia levels. The aim of this study was to investigate if the use of valproic acid, the age of the patients, or certain central nervous system pathologies can cause carnitine and/or acetylcarnitine deficiency leading to increased ammonia(More)