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Ketoprofen, a potent nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, is clinically administered as a racemic mixture. One of the possible metabolism routes of ketoprofen is the inversion of the R- to S-enantiomer in the gastrointestinal tract. Ketoprofen, as a weak acid drug, might undergo recirculation through pancreatic/intestinal juices. The aim of the work was to(More)
Diffusion is not the main process by which drugs are disposed throughout the body. Translational movements of solutes given by different energy-consuming mechanisms are required in order to dispose them efficiently. Membrane transportation and cardiac output distribution are two effective processes to move the molecules among different body sites.(More)
Sixteen healthy volunteers (8 women and 8 men) participated in a 2-period, 2-treatment crossover study. A delayed-release gastroresistant formulation of ketoprofen was administered under fasting and fed conditions. Cmax , AUC, Cmax /AUC, and kel obtained after food coadministration did not differ from those calculated under fasting administration.(More)
The aim of the present study was to present new evidence supporting the use of saliva as a biological fluid in relative bioavailability studies. Carbamazepine was chosen as a model drug because of its suitability for salivary therapeutic drug monitoring and its well-documented plasma bioavailability. A relative bioavailability study of four different(More)
Plasma concentration–time data obtained after an oral single dose of 500-mg valproic acid (VPA) in a delayed release formulation was used to model enterohepatic cycling of the drug. Fourteen healthy subjects (seven women and seven men) were enrolled, food intake was standardized, blood samples were withdrawn up to 48 h post dosing and VPA plasma(More)
Venous plasma drug concentrations are routinely monitored in order to determine pharmacokinetic parameters or to establish relationships with drug pharmacodynamic and clinical effects. Arterial drug concentration is higher than the respective venous concentration during the period where drug input of the substance predominates, whereas venous drug(More)
Nevirapine (NVP) extensive data obtained after oral single dose administration of 200 mg in a crossover study involving 16 healthy subjects was used to develop a descriptive population pharmacokinetic model including drug recirculation, since secondary peaks were observed in plasma concentration-time profiles for all subjects. Through implementation of(More)
Highly variable drugs have been defined as drugs with a residual variability of more than 30% in terms of the ANOVA coefficient of variation. Different approaches have been proposed during the last years to deal with this problem but the topic remains controversial. Itraconazole, a highly variable drug, has low bioavailability with a high CYP3A4(More)
Although sex-related differences in gastrointestinal physiology have been vastly reported, its impact on drug oral bioavailability and bioequivalence (product discrimination) is often ignored. On this work results from an average bioequivalence study between tablets containing 600mg of the antiretroviral efavirenz (EFV), carried out with 14 healthy subjects(More)
BACKGROUND The sudden changes (increase in capillary permeability, edema formation, vasodilation and hypotension) observed in septic patients and the measurements taken in order to revert this situation make vancomycin concentrations difficult to interpret. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of vancomycin is routinely performed at steady state, target(More)