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Synapsin I (protein I) is a neuron-specific phosphoprotein, which is a substrate for cAMP-dependent and Ca/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases. In two accompanying studies (De Camilli, P., R. Cameron, and P. Greengard, and De Camilli, P., S. M. Harris, Jr., W. B. Huttner, and P. Greengard, 1983, J. Cell Biol. 96:1337-1354 and 1355-1373) we have shown, by(More)
The mechanisms through which synaptic vesicle membranes are reinternalized after exocytosis remain a matter of debate. Because several vesicular transport steps require GTP hydrolysis, GTP-gamma S may help identify intermediates in synaptic vesicle recycling. In GTP-gamma S-treated nerve terminals, we observed tubular invaginations of the plasmalemma that(More)
Growing evidence suggests that phosphoinositides play an important role in membrane traffic. A polyphosphoinositide phosphatase, synaptojanin 1, was identified as a major presynaptic protein associated with endocytic coated intermediates. We report here that synaptojanin 1-deficient mice exhibit neurological defects and die shortly after birth. In neurons(More)
We have reported previously that the synaptic vesicle (SV) protein synaptophysin, when expressed in fibroblastic CHO cells, accumulates in a population of recycling microvesicles. Based on preliminary immunofluorescence observations, we had suggested that synaptophysin is targeted to the preexisting population of microvesicles that recycle transferrin(More)
Recent biochemical studies of p190, a calmodulin (CM)-binding protein purified from vertebrate brain, have demonstrated that this protein, purified as a complex with bound CM, shares a number of properties with myosins (Espindola, F. S., E. M. Espreafico, M. V. Coelho, A. R. Martins, F. R. C. Costa, M. S. Mooseker, and R. E. Larson. 1992. J. Cell Biol.(More)
Amphiphysin, a protein that is highly concentrated in nerve terminals, has been proposed to function as a linker between the clathrin coat and dynamin in the endocytosis of synaptic vesicles. Here, using a cell-free system, we provide direct morphological evidence in support of this hypothesis. Unexpectedly, we also find that amphiphysin-1, like dynamin-1,(More)
Dynamin 1 is a neuron-specific guanosine triphosphatase thought to be critically required for the fission reaction of synaptic vesicle endocytosis. Unexpectedly, mice lacking dynamin 1 were able to form functional synapses, even though their postnatal viability was limited. However, during spontaneous network activity, branched, tubular plasma membrane(More)
L-Glutamate is regarded as the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian CNS. However, whether the released transmitter originates from a cytosolic pool or is discharged from synaptic vesicles by exocytosis (vesicle hypothesis) remains controversial. A problem with the general acceptance of the vesicle hypothesis is that the enrichment of glutamate(More)
GABA, a major inhibitory neurotransmitter of the brain, is also present at high concentration in pancreatic islets. Current evidence suggests that within islets GABA is secreted from beta-cells and regulates the function of mantle cells (alpha- and delta-cells). In the nervous system GABA is stored in, and secreted from, synaptic vesicles. The mechanism of(More)
Strong evidence implicates clathrin-coated vesicles and endosome-like vacuoles in the reformation of synaptic vesicles after exocytosis, and it is generally assumed that these vacuoles represent a traffic station downstream from clathrin-coated vesicles. To gain insight into the mechanisms of synaptic vesicle budding from endosome-like intermediates, lysed(More)