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High levels of extracellular K+ ensure proper development and prolong survival of cerebellar granule neurons in culture. We find that when switched from a culture medium containing high K+ (25 mM) to one containing a low but more physiological K+ concentration (5 mM), differentiated granule neurons degenerate and die. Death induced by low K+ is due to(More)
Cerebellar granule cells deprived of depolarizing concentration of extracellular potassium, [K+]o, undergo apoptosis. We here report that this apoptotic process is associated with an immediate and permanent decrease in the levels of free intracellular calcium, [Ca2+]i. Although forskolin and IGF-1 are both able to prevent apoptosis, only forskolin is able(More)
The excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate plays a major role in determining certain neurological disorders. This situation, referred to as 'glutamate neurotoxicity' (GNT), is characterized by an increasing damage of cell components, including mitochondria, leading to cell death. In the death process, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated. The present(More)
The altered function and/or structure of tau protein is postulated to cause cell death in tauopathies and Alzheimer's disease. However, the mechanisms by which tau induces neuronal death remain unclear. Here we show that overexpression of human tau and of some of its N-terminal fragments in primary neuronal cultures leads to an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor(More)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by Aβ overproduction and tau hyperphosphorylation. We report that an early, transient and site-specific AD-like tau hyperphosphorylation at Ser262 and Thr231 epitopes is temporally and causally related with an activation of the endogenous amyloidogenic pathway that we previously reported in hippocampal neurons(More)
The pathogenic model of Alzheimer's disease (AD) posits that aggregates of amyloid β, a product of amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing, cause dementia. However, alterations of normal APP functions could contribute to AD pathogenesis, and it is therefore important to understand the role of APP. APP is a member of a gene family that shows functional(More)
Here, we report that interruption of NGF or BDNF signaling in hippocampal neurons rapidly activates the amyloidogenic pathway and causes neuronal apoptotic death. These events are associated with an early intracellular accumulation of PS1 N-terminal catalytic subunits and of APP C-terminal fragments and a progressive accumulation of intra- and extracellular(More)
Cerebellar granule cells undergo apoptosis in culture after deprivation of potassium and serum. During this process we found that tau, a neuronal microtubule-associated protein that plays a key role in the maintenance of neuronal architecture, and the pathology of which correlates with intellectual decline in Alzheimer's disease, is cleaved. The final(More)
This article reports the results of a systematic investigation of the different types of antibodies produced in the course of a long-term immunization of rats with mouse nerve growth factor (NGF). We have characterized three types of monoclonal antibodies, namely: (1) antibodies that bind to NGF and inhibit its binding to target cells and its biological(More)
The S-100 is a group of low molecular weight (10-12 kD) calcium-binding proteins highly conserved among vertebrates. It is present in different tissues as dimers of homologous or different subunits (alpha, beta). In the nervous system, the S-100 exists as a mixture composed of beta beta and alpha beta dimers with the monomer beta represented more often. Its(More)