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The altered function and/or structure of tau protein is postulated to cause cell death in tauopathies and Alzheimer's disease. However, the mechanisms by which tau induces neuronal death remain unclear. Here we show that overexpression of human tau and of some of its N-terminal fragments in primary neuronal cultures leads to an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor(More)
This article reports the results of a systematic investigation of the different types of antibodies produced in the course of a long-term immunization of rats with mouse nerve growth factor (NGF). We have characterized three types of monoclonal antibodies, namely: (1) antibodies that bind to NGF and inhibit its binding to target cells and its biological(More)
Cerebellar granule cells undergo apoptosis in culture after deprivation of potassium and serum. During this process we found that tau, a neuronal microtubule-associated protein that plays a key role in the maintenance of neuronal architecture, and the pathology of which correlates with intellectual decline in Alzheimer's disease, is cleaved. The final(More)
We investigated the potential role of the ubiquitin proteolytic system in the death of cerebellar granule neurons induced by reduction of extracellular potassium. Inhibitors of proteasomal function block apoptosis if administered at onset of this process, but they do not exert such effect when added 2-3 hr later. The same inhibitors also prevent caspase-3(More)
Cerebellar granule cells deprived of depolarizing concentration of extracellular potassium, [K+]o, undergo apoptosis. We here report that this apoptotic process is associated with an immediate and permanent decrease in the levels of free intracellular calcium, [Ca2+]i. Although forskolin and IGF-1 are both able to prevent apoptosis, only forskolin is able(More)
To gain insight into the mechanism through which the neurotransmitter glutamate causally participates in several neurological diseases, in vitro cultured cerebellar granule cells were exposed to glutamate and oxygen radical production was investigated. To this aim, a novel procedure was developed to detect oxygen radicals; the fluorescent dye(More)
Truncation at N-terminal domain of tau protein is early associated with neurofibrillary pathology in several human tauopathies, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). In affected subjects, the monitoring of total (t-tau) and/or phosphorylated tau (p-tau) levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) provides a reliable, indirect evaluation of cellular changes occurring(More)
Functional as well as structural alterations in mitochondria size, shape and distribution are precipitating, early events in progression of Alzheimer's Disease (AD). We reported that a 20-22kDa NH2-tau fragment (aka NH2htau), mapping between 26 and 230 amino acids of the longest human tau isoform, is detected in cellular and animal AD models and is(More)
Apoptosis of cerebellar granule cells induced by potassium withdrawal is accompanied by a very rapid decrease in both cell and mitochondrial respiration supported by glucose and succinate, respectively. The respiratory control ratio, which is an index of oxidative phosphorylation and therefore reflects the ability of mitochondria to produce ATP, is reduced(More)
A 100 microM glutamate pulse administered to rat cerebellar granule cells causes a very rapid and progressive decrease in both cell and mitochondrial oxygen consumption caused by glucose and succinate addition, respectively. The respiratory control ratio, which reflects the ability of mitochondria to produce ATP, is reduced by 50% within the first 30 min(More)