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The central role of the hypothalamus in the origination and/or processing of feeding-related stimuli may be modulated by the activity of other functional areas of the brain including the insular cortex (involved in enteroceptive monitoring) and the prefrontal cortex (involved in the inhibition of inappropriate response tendencies). Regional cerebral blood(More)
Obesity is accompanied by damage to several tissues. Overweight is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders. Whether structural abnormalities associated with excess body fat may also occur in the brain is unknown. We sought to determine to what extent excess body fat is associated with regional alterations in brain(More)
Ghrelin is a novel endogenous natural ligand for the growth hormone (GH) secretagogue receptor that has recently been isolated from the rat stomach. Ghrelin administration stimulates GH secretion but also causes weight gain by increasing food intake and reducing fat utilization in rodents. To investigate the possible involvement of ghrelin in the(More)
Adiponectin is a collagen-like circulating protein secreted by adipocytes that is proposed to mediate obesity-related resistance to insulin. In a case-control series, we assessed the role of adiponectin in later development of type 2 diabetes in 70 patients who later developed type 2 diabetes and 70 controls, matched for body-mass index, age, and sex. Cases(More)
OBJECTIVE Plasma concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6), a proinflammatory cytokine produced and released in part by adipose tissue, are elevated in people with obesity and type 2 diabetes. Because recent studies suggest that markers of inflammation predict the development of type 2 diabetes, we examined whether circulating plasma IL-6 concentrations were(More)
Plasma concentrations of adiponectin, a novel adipose-specific protein with putative antiatherogenic and antiinflammatory effects, were found to be decreased in Japanese individuals with obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, conditions commonly associated with insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia. To further characterize the relationship(More)
It has been proposed that liver dysfunction may contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes. The aim of the present study was to examine whether elevated hepatic enzymes (alanine aminotransferase [ALT], aspartate aminotransferase [AST], or gamma -glutamyltranspeptidase [GGT]) are associated with prospective changes in liver or whole-body insulin(More)
The effect of glucocorticoid administration on energy metabolism and food intake was studied in 20 healthy, nondiabetic Caucasian male volunteers [27 +/- 5 (SD) yr, 72 +/- 9 kg, 20 +/- 7% body fat] randomly and blindly assigned to glucocorticoid (methylprednisolone, METH; n = 10) or placebo (PLAC; n = 10) treatment. Each subject was studied twice: during a(More)
The hypothalamus has a major role in the control of food intake. However, neurotracing studies have shown that the hypothalamus receives input from several other regions of the brain that are likely to modulate its activity. Of particular interest to the understanding of human eating behavior is the possible involvement of the cortex. Using positron(More)
The intestinal fatty acid binding protein locus (FABP2) was investigated as a possible genetic factor in determining insulin action in the Pima Indian population. A polymorphism at codon 54 of FABP2 was identified that results in an alanine-encoding allele (frequency 0.71) and a threonine-encoding allele (frequency 0.29). Pimas who were homozygous or(More)